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Ism Chapter 39

Ism Chapter 39

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1301
Chapter 39
Relativity
Conceptual Problems
*1
\u2022
Picture the Problem The total relativistic energyE of a particle is defined to be the sum
of its kinetic and rest energies.
The total relativistic energy of a
particle is given by:
2
2
2
1
2
mc
mu
mc
K
E
+
=
+
=
and
correct.
is
)
(a
*2
\u2022
Determine the Concept The gravitational field of the earth is slightly greater in the

basement of the office building than it is at the top floor. Because clocks run more slowly
in regions of low gravitational potential, clocks in the basement will run more slowly
than clocks on the top floor. Hence, the twin who works on the top floor will age more

quickly.
correct.
is
)
(b
3\u2022

(a) True
(b) True
(c) False. The shortening of the length of an object in the direction in which it is moving

is independent of the velocity of the frame of reference from which it is observed.
(d) True
(e) False. Consider two explosions equidistant, but in opposite directions, from an

observer in the observer\u2019s frame of reference.
(f) False. Whether events appear to be simultaneous depends on the motion of the
observer.
(g) True
4
\u2022
Determine the Concept Because the clock is moving with respect to the first observer, a
time interval will be longer for this observer than for the observer moving with the
spring-and-mass oscillator. Hence, the observer moving with the system will measure a
Chapter 39
1302
period that is less thanT.
correct.
is
)
(b
5
\u2022
Determine the Concept Although\u2206y =\u2206y\u2032, \u2206t \u2260\u2206t\u2032. Consequently,
uy =\u2206y/\u2206t\u2032\u2260\u2206y\u2032/\u2206t\u2032 =uy\u2032.
Estimation and Approximation
6
\u2022\u2022
Picture the Problem We can calculate the sun\u2019s loss of mass per day from the number of
reactions per second and the loss of mass per reaction.
Express the rate at which the sun
loses mass:
m
N
t
M
\u2206
=
\u2206
\u2206

whereN is the number of reactions per
second and\u2206m is the loss of mass per
reaction.

Solve for\u2206M:
t
m
N
M
\u2206
\u2206
=
\u2206
(1)
Find the number of reactions per
second,N:
1
38
19
26
s
10
eV
J
10
1.60
reaction
MeV
25
J/s
10
4
reaction
/
\u2212
\u2212
=
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
==E
P
N
The loss of mass per reaction\u2206m is:
(
)
kg
10
44
.
4
m/s
10
3
eV
J
10
1.60
reaction
MeV
25
reaction
/
29
2
8
19
2
\u2212
\u2212
\u00d7
=
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
==
\u2206
c
E
m
Substitute numerical values in equation (1) and evaluate\u2206M:
(
)(
)( )(
)
kg
10
84
.
3
ks/d
4
.
86
d
1
kg
10
44
.
4
s
10
14
29
1
38
\u00d7
=
\u00d7
=
\u2206
\u2212
\u2212
M
Relativity1303
*7
\u2022\u2022
Picture the Problem We can use the result from Problem 30, for light that is Doppler-
shifted with respect to an observer,
\u239f\u239f\u23a0\u239e
\u239c\u239c\u239d\u239b
+\u2212
=
1
1
22
uu
c
v
, whereu =z + 1 andz is the red-shift
parameter, to find the ratio ofv toc. In (b) we can solve Hubble\u2019s law forx and substitute
our result from (a) to estimate the distance to the galaxy.
(a) Use the result of Problem 30 to
expressv/c as a function ofz:
( )
( )1
1
1
1
22
+
+
\u2212
+
=zz
cv
Substitute forz and evaluatev/c:
( )
( )
946
.
0
1
1
5
1
1
5
22
=
+
+
\u2212
+
=
cv
(b) Solve Hubble\u2019s law forx:
Hv
x=
Substitute numerical values and
evaluatex:
(
)
y
G
3
.
12
Mpc
y
10
3.26
Mpc
10
78
.
3
Mpc
km/s
75
km/s
10
3
946
.
0
946
.
0
6
3
5
\u22c5
=
\u22c5
\u00d7
\u00d7
\u00d7
=
\u00d7
=
=
c
c
H
c
x
Time Dilation and Length Contraction
8
\u2022
Picture the Problem We can find the mean lifetime of a muon as measured in the
laboratory using
t
t'
\u03b3
=
where
( )2
1
1
c
v
\u2212
=
\u03b3
andt is the proper mean lifetime of
the muon. The distanceL that the muon travels is the product of its speed and its mean
lifetime in the laboratory.

(a) The mean lifetime of the muon,
as measured in the laboratory, is
given by:

2
1
\u239f\u23a0\u239e
\u239c\u239d\u239b
\u2212
=
cv
t
t'
Substitute numerical values and
evaluatet\u2032:
s
41
.
6
95
.
0
1
s
2
2
\u00b5
\u00b5
=
\u239f\u23a0\u239e
\u239c\u239d\u239b
\u2212
=
c
c
t'

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