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Ism Chapter 41

Ism Chapter 41

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1409
Chapter 41
Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe
Conceptual Problems
1
\u2022
Similarities
Differences

Baryons and mesons are hadrons, i.e., they
participate in the strong interaction. Both
are composed of quarks.

Baryons consist of three quarks and are
fermions. Mesons consist of two quarks
and are bosons. Baryons have baryon
number +1 or\u22121. Mesons have baryon
number 0.

2
\u2022
Determine the Concept The muon is a lepton. It is a spin-\u00bd particle and is a fermion. It

does not participate in strong interactions. It appears to be an elementary particle like the electron. The pion is a meson. Its spin is 0 and it is a boson. It does participate in strong interactions and is composed of quarks.

*3
\u2022
Determine the Concept A decay process involving the strong interaction has a very short
lifetime (\u223c10\u221223 s), whereas decay processes that proceed via the weak interaction have
lifetimes of order 10\u221210 s.
4
\u2022
(a) True
(b) False. There are two kinds of hadrons-baryons, which have spin2
1(or
,
,2
5
23
and so
on), and mesons, which have zero or integral spin.
5
\u2022
False. Mesons have zero or integral spins.
6
\u2022
Determine the Concept A meson has 2 quarks, a baryon has 3 quarks.
7
\u2022
Determine the Concept No; from Table 41-2 it is evident that any quark-antiquark
combination always results in an integral or zero charge.
Chapter 41
1410
8
\u2022

(a) False. Leptons are not made up of quarks.
(b) True
(c) False. Electrons are leptons and leptons interact via the weak interaction.
(d) True
(e) True

*9
\u2022
Determine the Concept No. Such a reaction is impossible. A proton requires three
quarks. Three quarks are not available because a pion is made of a quark and an
antiquark and the antiproton consists of three antiquarks.
Estimation and Approximation
10
\u2022\u2022
Picture the Problem Assuming that the lifetime of a proton is 1032 y, one proton out of

every 1032 protons should decay every year on average. Hence, we can estimate the
expected time between proton-decays that occur in the water of a filled Olympic-size
swimming pool by determining the number of protonsN in the pool and dividing 1032 y by
this number.

The mean time between
disintegrations is the ratio of the
lifetime of the protons to the number
of protonsN in the pool:

N
t
y
1032
mean=
\u2206
(1)

The number of protonsN in the pool is related to the mass of water in the poolMwater, the molar mass of water

mmolar, water, and the number of
protons per moleculen:
water
molar,A
water
m
nN
MN=
Solve forN to obtain:
water
molar,
water
A
m
M
nN
N=

Because the mass of the water is the
product of its density and the
volume of the pool:

water
molar,
pool
water
A
m
V
nN
N
\u03c1
=
Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe1411
Substituting forN in equation (1)
yields:
( )
pool
water
A
water
molar,
32
water
molar,
pool
water
A
32
mean
y
10
y
10
V
nN
m
m
V
nN
t
\u03c1
\u03c1
==
\u2206
Because each molecule of water has
10 protons:
molecule
protons
10
=
n
Substitute numerical values and evaluate\u2206tmean:
( )
(
)(
)( )
d
8
.
21
y
d
365.24
y
0598
.
0
y
0598
.
0
m
2
m
25
m
100
mkg
10
mol
molecules
10
02
.
6
molecule
protons
10
g
10kg
1
mol
g
18
y
10
3
3
23
3
32
mean
=
\u00d7
=
=
\u239f\u23a0\u239e
\u239c\u239d\u239b
\u239f\u23a0\u239e
\u239c\u239d\u239b
\u00d7
\u239f\u23a0\u239e
\u239c\u239d\u239b
\u239f\u239f\u23a0\u239e
\u239c\u239c\u239d\u239b
\u00d7
=
\u2206t
11
\u2022
Picture the Problem We can use
2
nucleus
2
proton
em
r
kq
F=
and
2
nucleus
2
proton
grav
r
Gm
F=
to
estimate the ratio of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces between two protons
located in a nucleus.

The electromagnetic force between two protons located in a nucleus is given by:

2
nucleus
2
proton
em
r
kq
F=
The gravitational force between
these same protons is given by:
2
nucleus
2
proton
grav
r
Gm
F=
DivideFemb yFgrav to obtain:
2
proton
2
proton
2
nucleus
2
proton
2
nucleus
2
proton
grav
em
Gm
kq
r
Gm
r
kq
FF
=
=
Substitute numerical values and evaluateFem/Fgrav:

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