Physical Chemistry I
Vapor Pressure of a Pure Liquid
In this experiment the vapor pressure of methanol was measured by means of a
vacuumed isoteniscope in a stirred water bath. The heat of vaporization as calculated by
the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was \u2206Hvap = 33.104 + 0.968 kJ/mol, which is
somewhat close to the literature value of \u2206Hvap =35.21 kJ/mol. Using the Antoine
equation the heat of vaporization was calculated to be \u2206Hvap = 50.085 + 0.351 kJ/mol.
The Antoine Equation provides a better fit for the experimental data since most of the
residuals are 0 or extremely close to the experimental data when compared to the
Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Two trials were performed. The second trial appeared to be
more accurate since the values of its Antoine coefficients (A = 8.754, B = 2025.15, C =
In this experiment, the vapor pressure of methanol was measured. Vapor pressure
of a pure compound is an intensive property that is independent of the amounts of the two
phases (gas and liquid) as long as both are present. It is defined as the pressure of a
system in which the gas of a substance is in dynamic equilibrium with its liquid form.
Since vapor pressure strongly increases as a function of temperature and slightly
increases as a function of applied pressure, it was necessary to record the vapor pressure.
The vapor pressure of the system was measured using a MKS Baratron pressure gauge in
which it increased strongly as a function of increasing temperature. The following
equation relating the variation of vapor pressure with temperature was used to analyze the
The above equation is known as the Clausius-Clayeron equation and was used
under the assumption that the heat of vaporization is independent of temperature. In
equation 1, P represents the vapor pressure of the liquid, T represents the temperature in
Kelvin, and \u0394Hvap stands for the molar heat of vaporization for methanol.
Equation 1 will give an accurate fit to vapor pressure data over a wide range of
temperatures, as long as the temperature is well below the critical temperature. This will
cause compensating errors in the analysis, and therefore a more accurate equation is
required to consider the variation of vapor pressure with temperature. Hence the
following equation, the Antoine equation, was used to give a more elaborate method for
finding vapor pressure as a function of temperature:
Ice was packed around the glass trap. Next, the constant temperature bath was set
to 24oC. Once the isoteniscope cooled from being in the oven, the bulb was filled
approximately three-fourths of the way with methanol. The isoteniscope was clamped
into the constant temperature bath and then connected to the vacuum pump. The vacuum
pump was turned on and pressure was slowly reduced until the vaporization pressure. The
vapor pressure was reached when the methanol boiled vigorously and after several
evacuations, the pressure equilibrated back to the previous reading. No methanol was
allowed to enter into the U-tube part of the isoteniscope during these evacuations. Once
the vapor pressure was discovered, methanol was allowed to enter the U-tube of the
isoteniscope. Methanol in the tube was leveled by increasing, opening the system to the
atmosphere, or decreasing, turning on the vacuum, the pressure.
The constant bath temperature was then increased by various increments. During
the temperature increase the level of the methanol fluctuated, so; pressure was again
increased or decreased as needed. After the temperature became constant and the
methanol leveled, the pressure was recorded. Temperature was increased until methanol\u2019s
boiling point was reached, 64.7oC and the pressure was then at atmospheric pressure,
approximately 760 torr. The system was then returned to room temperature and pressure.
Finally, the methanol was removed from the isoteniscope. This procedure was then
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?