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Tai Lieu Nghien Cuu Khoa Hoc

Tai Lieu Nghien Cuu Khoa Hoc

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Published by: api-3696427 on Oct 19, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Trang web c\u1ee7a Thanh tra Ch\u00ednh ph\u1ee7 v\u1eeba c\u00f4ng b\u1ed1 danh s\u00e1ch 10 v\u1ee5 vi\u1ec7c tham nh\u0169ng, ti\u00eau c\u1ef1c trong n\u0103m 2006. X\u1ebfp \u1edf v\u1ecb tr\u00ed s\u1ed1 1 v\u1eabn l\u00e0 v\u1ee5 \u00e1n PMU18 v\u1edbi 60% s\u1ed1 \u0111\u1ed9c gi\u1ea3 b\u00ecnh ch\u1ecdn.

1. \u0110\u1ee9ng \u0111\u1ea7u l\u00e0 v\u1ee5 \u00e1n \u201ccon b\u1ea1c tri\u1ec7u \u0111\u00f4\u201d B\u00f9i Ti\u1ebfn
D\u0169ng v\u00e0 ti\u00eau c\u1ef1c l\u1edbn \u1edf Ban Qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd d\u1ef1 \u00e1n (DA) PMU18
B\u1ed9 Giao th\u00f4ng V\u1eadn t\u1ea3i (GTVT) b\u1ecb phanh phui khi\u1ebfn B\u1ed9

tr\u01b0\u1edfng GTVT \u0110\u00e0o \u0110\u00ecnh B\u00ecnh b\u1ecb c\u1ea3nh c\u00e1o v\u00e0 ph\u1ea3i t\u1eeb ch\u1ee9c; ti\u1ebfp \u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 nguy\u00ean Th\u1ee9 tr\u01b0\u1edfng Th\u01b0\u1eddng tr\u1ef1c B\u1ed9 Giao th\u00f4ng V\u1eadn t\u1ea3i, ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c coi l\u00e0 \u201cc\u00f3 tri\u1ec3n v\u1ecdng\u201d b\u1ecb b\u1eaft.

17 t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c v\u00e0 40 c\u00e1 nh\u00e2n \u1edf B\u1ed9 GTVT li\u00ean quan \u0111\u00e3 b\u1ecb x\u1eed l\u00fd; m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 c\u00e1n b\u1ed9 c\u1ee7a ng\u00e0nh C\u00f4ng an li\u00ean quan
\u0111\u1ebfn \u201cch\u1ea1y\u201d \u00e1n b\u1ecb \u0111\u00ecnh ch\u1ec9 c\u00f4ng t\u00e1c. Ch\u00ednh ph\u1ee7 \u0111\u00e3 ph\u1ea3i xem x\u00e9t v\u00e0 \u0111i\u1ec1u ch\u1ec9nh c\u01a1 ch\u1ebf qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd v\u1ed1n ODA.
2. V\u1ee5 vi\u1ec7c c\u00e1n b\u1ed9 l\u00e3nh \u0111\u1ea1o th\u1ecb x\u00e3 \u0110\u1ed3 S\u01a1n - H\u1ea3i Ph\u00f2ng mang h\u00e0ng ch\u1ee5c m\u1ea3nh \u0111\u1ea5t c\u00f3 gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb ti\u1ec1n t\u1ef7 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chia ch\u00e1c v\u00e0
mang \u0111i \u201cquan h\u1ec7\u201d. Nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi khi\u1ebfu n\u1ea1i, t\u1ed1 c\u00e1o th\u00ec b\u1ecb tr\u00f9 d\u1eadp, khai tr\u1eeb kh\u1ecfi \u0110\u1ea3ng.

L\u00ean t\u1edbi \u0111\u1ec9nh \u0111i\u1ec3m c\u1ee7a s\u1ef1 h\u00e0i h\u01b0\u1edbc l\u00e0 b\u1ea3n \u00e1n s\u01a1 th\u1ea9m \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c tuy\u00ean v\u1edbi 50.000 \u0111\u1ed3ng ti\u1ec1n \u00e1n ph\u00ed cho c\u00e1c b\u1ecb c\u00e1o v\u00e0 h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c n\u1eb7ng nh\u1ea5t l\u00e0 c\u1ea3nh c\u00e1o. M\u1ee5c \u0111\u00edch c\u1ee7a s\u1ef1 can thi\u1ec7p c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 l\u00e3nh \u0111\u1ea1o H\u1ea3i Ph\u00f2ng s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u00e0m s\u00e1ng t\u1ecf trong th\u1eddi gian t\u1edbi.

3. V\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 nh\u00e0 c\u00f4ng v\u1ee5 bi\u1ebfn th\u00e0nh nh\u00e0 t\u01b0 do b\u00e1o ch\u00ed ph\u00e1t hi\u1ec7n, \u0111i\u1ec1u tra v\u00e0 \u0111\u01b0a ra c\u00f4ng
lu\u1eadn\u0111\u00e3 khi\u1ebfn d\u01b0 lu\u1eadn c\u1ea3 n\u01b0\u1edbc quan t\u00e2m v\u00e0 b\u00e0y t\u1ecf s\u1ef1 b\u1ee9c x\u00fac. V\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 n\u00e0y l\u1eadp t\u1ee9c \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u01b0a l\u00ean b\u00e0n ngh\u1ecb s\u1ef1 v\u00e0 \u0111\u00e3 l\u00e0m
n\u00f3ng ngh\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng Qu\u1ed1c h\u1ed9i v\u00e0 H\u0110ND TP H\u00e0 N\u1ed9i v\u00e0 TP.HCM.

\u00d4ng Ho\u00e0ng V\u0103n Nghi\u00ean, \u00f4ng Phan V\u0103n V\u01b0\u1ee3ng kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c TP H\u00e0 N\u1ed9i b\u00e1n cho 2 bi\u1ec7t th\u1ef1 m\u00e0 2 \u00f4ng \u0111ang thu\u00ea \u1edf; \u00f4ng L\u00ea \u0110\u1ee9c Th\u00fay - Th\u1ed1ng \u0111\u1ed1c Ng\u00e2n h\u00e0ng Nh\u00e0 n\u01b0\u1edbc Vi\u1ec7t Nam c\u0169ng \u0111\u00e3 ph\u1ea3i tr\u1ea3 l\u1ea1i nh\u00e0 s\u1ed1 6 L\u00fd Th\u00e1i T\u1ed5 (H\u00e0 N\u1ed9i) mua sai quy \u0111\u1ecbnh.

4. Ti\u1ebfp theo l\u00e0 v\u1ee5 si\u00eau l\u1eeba Nguy\u1ec5n \u0110\u1ee9c Chi c\u00f9ng d\u1ef1 \u00e1n Rusalk v\u00e0 nh\u1eefng s\u1ef1 "\u01b0u \u00e1i" kh\u00f3
hi\u1ec3u t\u1eeb ph\u00eda t\u1ec9nh Kh\u00e1nh H\u00f2a.
5. V\u1ee5 ti\u00eau c\u1ef1c mua s\u1eafm thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb \u1edf 38 b\u01b0u \u0111i\u1ec7n t\u1ec9nh, TP tr\u00ean to\u00e0n qu\u1ed1c t\u1ea1i c\u00e1c b\u01b0u \u0111i\u1ec7n
do tr\u00f9m l\u1eeba \u0111\u1ea3o Nguy\u1ec5n L\u00e2m Th\u00e1i c\u1ea7m \u0111\u1ea7u. Nguy\u1ec5n L\u00e2m Th\u00e1i \u0111\u00e3 h\u1ed1i l\u1ed9 h\u01a1n 1 t\u1ef7 \u0111\u1ed3ng cho gi\u00e1m \u0111\u1ed1c,
Ph\u00f3 Gi\u00e1m \u0111\u1ed1c, tr\u01b0\u1edfng ph\u00f2ng c\u1ee7a 9 b\u01b0u \u0111i\u1ec7n.
\u0110\u1ed5i l\u1ea1i, nhi\u1ec1u l\u00e3nh \u0111\u1ea1o c\u1ee7a 38 b\u01b0u \u0111i\u1ec7n t\u1ec9nh, TP \u0111\u00e3 k\u00fd h\u1ee3p \u0111\u1ed3ng mua b\u00e1n thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb b\u01b0u \u0111i\u1ec7n v\u1edbi c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty
c\u1ee7a Nguy\u1ec5n L\u00e2m Th\u00e1i g\u00e2y thi\u1ec7t h\u1ea1i cho nh\u00e0 n\u01b0\u1edbc 45 t\u1ef7 \u0111\u1ed3ng.
6.Vi \u1ec7 c c\u1ef1u \u0111\u1ea1i bi\u1ec3u Qu\u1ed1c h\u1ed9i M\u1ea1c Kim T\u00f4n \u0111\u00e3 ch\u1ec9 \u0111\u1ea1o c\u00e1c tr\u01b0\u1eddng tr\u00ean \u0111\u1ecba b\u00e0n t\u1ec9nh Th\u00e1i B\u00ecnh chi

20% t\u1ed5ng tr\u1ecb gi\u00e1 s\u1ed1 m\u00e1y t\u00ednh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u1eafp \u0111\u1ec3 chi ph\u00ed cho d\u1ef1 \u00e1n. \u0110\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi, \u00f4ng T\u00f4n \u0111\u00e3 \u00e9p 17 tr\u01b0\u1eddng l\u00e0m ch\u1ee9ng t\u1eeb kh\u1ed1ng \u0111\u1ec3 r\u00fat ra g\u1ea7n 500 tri\u1ec7u \u0111\u1ed3ng trong v\u1ee5 Tr\u1ea7n Th\u1ecb \u00e1nh v\u00e0 nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi c\u00f3 li\u00ean quan \u0111\u00e3 l\u1eeba mua c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty h\u00e0ng tr\u0103m m\u00e1y t\u00ednh, thi\u1ebft b\u1ecb tr\u1ecb gi\u00e1 h\u01a1n 4,2 t\u1ef7 \u0111\u1ed3ng \u0111\u1ec3 l\u1eafp \u0111\u1eb7t cho kho\u1ea3ng 20 tr\u01b0\u1eddng h\u1ecdc c\u1ee7a t\u1ec9nh theo m\u1ed9t d\u1ef1 \u00e1n "ma".

7. Nh\u1eefng sai ph\u1ea1m t\u1ea1i Vietnam Airlines c\u0169ng l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t trong 10 v\u1ee5 \u0111\u00ecnh \u0111\u00e1m c\u1ee7a n\u0103m,
Vi\u1ec7c Vietnam Airlines bao cho con m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 l\u00e3nh \u0111\u1ea1o, b\u1ed9 ng\u00e0nh \u0111i du h\u1ecdc d\u00f9 kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u1ee7 ti\u00eau chu\u1ea9n, Nh\u1eefng thi\u1ec7t h\u1ea1i trong
vi\u1ec7c tr\u1ea3 m\u00e1y bay, mua \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u01a1 hay m\u1ea5t 5,2 tri\u1ec7u euro ti\u1ec1n ph\u1ea1t\u2026
8. \u0110\u1ea5t r\u1eebng t\u1ea1i huy\u1ec7n ngo\u1ea1i th\u00e0nh S\u00f3c S\u01a1n (H\u00e0 N\u1ed9i) b\u1ecb "b\u0103m n\u00e1t" nh\u01b0ng kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c tr\u1ed3ng c\u00e2y g\u00e2y
r\u1eebng m\u00e0 thay v\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3, c\u00e1c ng\u00f4i nh\u00e0 c\u1ee9 l\u1ea7n l\u01b0\u1ee3t m\u1ecdc l\u00ean. Ph\u1ea7n l\u1edbn nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111\u1ee9ng t\u00ean \u0111\u1ebfn t\u1eeb H\u00e0 N\u1ed9i,
chuy\u1ec3n \u0111\u1ed5i m\u1ee5c \u0111\u00edch s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng, x\u00e2y d\u1ef1ng c\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh, l\u00e0m trang tr\u1ea1i, nh\u00e0 h\u00e0ng, bi\u1ec7t th\u1ef1, nh\u00e0 ngh\u1ec9 cu\u1ed1i tu\u1ea7n...
V\u1ee5 PMU18 \u0111\u1ee9ng \u0111\u1ea7u b\u1ea3ng phong th\u1ea7n.
9. S\u1ed1 ti\u1ec1n sai ph\u1ea1m kh\u00f4ng l\u1edbn nh\u01b0ng v\u1ee5 x\u00e0 x\u1ebbo ti\u1ec1n c\u1ee9u tr\u1ee3 \u1edf H\u01b0\u01a1ng S\u01a1n, H\u00e0 T\u0129nh
\u201cx\u1ee9ng \u0111\u00e1ng\u201d \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u1ee9ng trong danhs\u00e1ch 10 v\u1ee5 tham nh\u0169ng, l\u00e3ng ph\u00ed c\u1ee7a n\u0103m 2006.

Kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 b\u1ea5t c\u1ee9 ai b\u1ecb truy c\u1ee9u tr\u00e1ch nhi\u1ec7m h\u00ecnh s\u1ef1 trong v\u1ee5 \u00e1n tham nh\u0169ng v\u1edbi h\u00e0nh vi nghi\u00eam tr\u1ecdng: "X\u1ebbo" ti\u1ec1n c\u1ee9u tr\u1ee3 nh\u00e2n \u0111\u1ea1o \u1edf huy\u1ec7n H\u01b0\u01a1ng S\u01a1n. V\u1ee5 vi\u1ec7c b\u1ecb "ch\u00ecm xu\u1ed3ng" t\u1eeb n\u0103m 2004 \u0111\u1ebfn n\u0103m 2006 m\u1edbi b\u1ecb b\u00e1o ch\u00ed "khui" ra.

Ph\u00f3 Th\u1ee7 t\u01b0\u1edbng Tr\u01b0\u01a1ng V\u0129nh Tr\u1ecdng (Tr\u01b0\u1edfng ban N\u1ed9i ch\u00ednh Trung \u01b0\u01a1ng, Ph\u00f3 Th\u1ee7 t\u01b0\u1edbng \u0111\u1eb7c tr\u00e1ch v\u1ec1 ch\u1ed1ng
tham nh\u0169ng) \u0111\u00e3 truy\u1ec1n \u0111\u1ea1t \u00fd ki\u1ebfn y\u00eau c\u1ea7u t\u1ec9nh H\u00e0 T\u0129nh ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0m r\u00f5, x\u1eed l\u00fd nghi\u00eam v\u1ee5 vi\u1ec7c t\u1eeb ng\u00e0y 25/8.
10. Nh\u1eefng gian l\u1eadn trong k\u1ef3 thi t\u1ed1t nghi\u1ec7p n\u0103m 2006 t\u1ea1i m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 h\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed3ng thi c\u1ee7a H\u00e0
T\u00e2y \u0111\u00e3 ch\u00e2m ng\u00f2i cho c\u1ea3 n\u01b0\u1edbc ph\u00e1t \u0111\u1ed9ng phong tr\u00e0o n\u00f3i kh\u00f4ng v\u1edbi ti\u00eau c\u1ef1c trong thi c\u1eed.
\u0110i\u1ec1u n\u00e0y c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng ti\u1ec1n l\u1ec7 t\u1ed1t nh\u1eb1m gi\u1ea3m nh\u1eefng gian l\u1eadn c\u1ee7a th\u1ebf h\u1ec7 tr\u1ebb trong t\u01b0\u01a1ng lai. Hi\u1ec7n t\u01b0\u1ee3ng c\u1ee7a th\u1ea7y gi\u00e1o
\u0110\u1ed7 Vi\u1ec7t Khoa trong n\u0103m 2006 hy v\u1ecdng s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e1t huy h\u01a1n n\u1eefa trong n\u0103m t\u1edbi.
T\u01af LI\u1ec6U D\u1ecaCH: C\u00c1C V\u1ea4N \u0110\u1ec0 TO\u00c0N C\u1ea6U
THAM NH\u0168NG: KH\u00c1I NI\u1ec6M, PH\u00c2N LO\u1ea0I, NGUY\u00caN NH\u00c2N V\u00c0 H\u1eacU QU\u1ea2
Trung t\u00e2m Doanh nghi\u1ec7p T\u01b0 nh\u00e2n Qu\u1ed1c t\u1ebf (CIPE), \u201cC\u1ea3i c\u00e1ch Kinh t\u1ebf\u201d, t\u1eadp 1, s\u1ed1 2, h\u00e8 2005
Boris Begovic
Ph\u00f3 Ch\u1ee7 t\u1ecbch, Trung t\u00e2m Nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u T\u1ef1 do-D\u00e2n ch\u1ee7 (CLDS)
L\u00fd thuy\u1ebft kinh t\u1ebf \u0111\u00e3 n\u00eau hai quan \u0111i\u1ec3m c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n v\u1ec1 tham nh\u0169ng. Quan \u0111i\u1ec3m th\u1ee9 nh\u1ea5t
coi tham nh\u0169ng l\u00e0 y\u1ebfu t\u1ed1 ngo\u1ea1i sinh, quan \u0111i\u1ec3m th\u1ee9 hai cho r\u1eb1ng tham nh\u0169ng l\u00e0
nh\u00e2n t\u1ed1 n\u1ed9i sinh trong ch\u00ednh tr\u1ecb. N\u1ebfu \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng m\u1ed9t trong hai quan \u0111i\u1ec3m tr\u00ean, ch\u00fang ta
c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 chia tham nh\u0169ng th\u00e0nh ba lo\u1ea1i c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n: tham nh\u0169ng \u0111\u1ec3 \u0111\u1ea9y nhanh ti\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ed9,
tham nh\u0169ng h\u00e0nh ch\u00ednh v\u00e0 \u201cb\u1ebb cong ph\u00e1p lu\u1eadt\u201d. M\u1eb7c d\u00f9 trong h\u1ea7u h\u1ebft m\u1ecdi tr\u01b0\u1eddng
h\u1ee3p, tham nh\u0169ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0 do t\u00ecnh tr\u1ea1ng v\u01a1 v\u00e9t b\u1ed5ng l\u1ed9c g\u00e2y ra, song nh\u1eefng c\u00e1 nh\u00e2n
\u00edch k\u1ef7 t\u00ecm c\u00e1ch t\u1ed1i \u0111a h\u00f3a l\u1ee3i \u00edch c\u1ee7a ri\u00eang h\u1ecd c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 c\u00e1c b\u1ed9 lu\u1eadt ph\u1ee9c t\u1ea1p, m\u1eadp
m\u1edd v\u00e0 thi\u1ebfu t\u00ednh kh\u1ea3 thi c\u0169ng l\u00e0 nguy\u00ean nh\u00e2n d\u1eabn t\u1edbi t\u00ecnh tr\u1ea1ng \u0111\u00f3.
Ngo\u00e0i vi\u1ec7c vi ph\u1ea1m lu\u1eadt ph\u00e1p v\u00e0 khi\u1ebfn chi ph\u00ed giao d\u1ecbch t\u0103ng cao, tham nh\u0169ng c\u00f2n
l\u00e0m suy y\u1ebfu h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng t\u1ef1 do l\u00e0nh m\u1ea1nh b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch tri\u1ec7t tho\u00e1i vi\u1ec7c b\u1ea3o v\u1ec7
quy\u1ec1n s\u1edf h\u1eefu t\u00e0i s\u1ea3n t\u01b0 nh\u00e2n, l\u00e0m n\u1ea3n l\u00f2ng c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 ti\u1ec1m n\u0103ng v\u00e0 l\u00e3ng ph\u00ed \u00f3c
s\u00e1ng t\u1ea1o kinh doanh v\u00e0o nh\u1eefng ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng ph\u00e2n chia l\u1ea1i ngu\u1ed3n l\u1ef1c. Gi\u1ea3i ph\u00e1p cho v\u1ea5n
n\u1ea1n n\u00e0y g\u1ed3m h\u1ea1n ch\u1ebf c\u01a1 h\u1ed9i tr\u1ee5c l\u1ee3i t\u1eeb c\u00e1c bi\u1ec7n ph\u00e1p phi \u0111i\u1ec1u ti\u1ebft, \u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n h\u00f3a c\u00e1c
th\u1ee7 t\u1ee5c \u0111\u1ec3 gi\u1ea3m b\u1edbt s\u1ef1 t\u00f9y ti\u1ec7n trong \u0111\u1ed9i ng\u0169 c\u00f4ng ch\u1ee9c, t\u0103ng l\u01b0\u01a1ng cho c\u00e1n b\u1ed9 \u0111\u1ed3ng
th\u1eddi tr\u1eebng ph\u1ea1t th\u00edch \u0111\u00e1ng n\u1ea1n tham nh\u0169ng. Tuy v\u1eady, quy\u1ebft t\u00e2m ch\u00ednh tr\u1ecb s\u1ebd v\u1eabn l\u00e0
ti\u1ec1n \u0111\u1ec1 quan tr\u1ecdng nh\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi m\u1ed9t chi\u1ebfn l\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ed1ng tham nh\u0169ng c\u00f3 hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3.
Trong khi tham nh\u0169ng v\u1eabn c\u00f2n ho\u00e0nh h\u00e0nh nhi\u1ec1u h\u01a1n \u1edf c\u00e1c n\u1ec1n kinh t\u1ebf \u0111ang trong
th\u1eddi k\u1ef3 chuy\u1ec3n \u0111\u1ed5i, th\u00ec t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 m\u1ecdi qu\u1ed1c gia s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c h\u01b0\u1edfng l\u1ee3i t\u1eeb vi\u1ec7c t\u1eadp trung ph\u00e2n
b\u1ed5 ngu\u1ed3n l\u1ef1c theo h\u01b0\u1edbng t\u1ea1o ra c\u1ee7a c\u1ea3i v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t ch\u1ee9 kh\u00f4ng ch\u1ec9 \u0111\u01a1n gi\u1ea3n ch\u1ec9 l\u00e0 ph\u00e2n
ph\u1ed1i l\u1ea1i c\u00e1c ngu\u1ed3n l\u1ef1c \u0111\u00f3.
\u0110\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a \u201cTham nh\u0169ng\u201d
Tham nh\u0169ng l\u00e0 g\u00ec? C\u00f3 th\u1ec3 c\u00f3 nhi\u1ec1u c\u00e2u tr\u1ea3 l\u1eddi cho c\u00e2u h\u1ecfi n\u00e0y. \u1ede c\u1ea5p \u0111\u1ed9 ph\u00e2n t\u00edch,
Vito Tanzi \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0a ra c\u00e2u tr\u1ea3 l\u1eddi s\u00fac t\u00edch nh\u1ea5t: \u201cTham nh\u0169ng l\u00e0 h\u00e0nh \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ed1 t\u00ecnh
kh\u00f4ng tu\u00e2n th\u1ee7 c\u00e1c nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc c\u00f4ng minh nh\u1eb1m tr\u1ee5c l\u1ee3i cho c\u00e1 nh\u00e2n ho\u1eb7c cho nh\u1eefng
k\u1ebb c\u00f3 li\u00ean quan t\u1edbi h\u00e0nh \u0111\u1ed9ng \u0111\u00f3\u201d. C\u00f3 ba n\u1ed9i dung ch\u00ednh trong \u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a n\u00e0y. N\u1ed9i
dung th\u1ee9 nh\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ec1 c\u1eadp t\u1edbi nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc c\u00f4ng minh b\u1edfi l\u1ebd n\u00f3 \u0111\u00f2i h\u1ecfi quan h\u1ec7 c\u00e1 nh\u00e2n
ho\u1eb7c c\u00e1c m\u1ed1i quan h\u1ec7 kh\u00e1c kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c xen v\u00e0o c\u00e1c quy\u1ebft \u0111\u1ecbnh kinh t\u1ebf c\u00f3 li\u00ean quan
\u0111\u1ebfn nhi\u1ec1u b\u00ean. Vi\u1ec7c \u0111\u1ed1i x\u1eed b\u00ecnh \u0111\u1eb3ng v\u1edbi t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c ch\u1ee7 th\u1ec3 kinh t\u1ebf l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t y\u00eau c\u1ea7u
c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi m\u1ed9t n\u1ec1n kinh t\u1ebf th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u00f3 hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3. Th\u00e1i \u0111\u1ed9 thi\u00ean v\u1ecb
\u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 ch\u1ee7 th\u1ec3 kinh t\u1ebf c\u1ee5 th\u1ec3 n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3 ch\u1eafc ch\u1eafn s\u1ebd vi ph\u1ea1m nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc c\u00f4ng
minh v\u00e0 m\u1edf \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng cho tham nh\u0169ng. Kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 thi\u00ean v\u1ecb th\u00ec s\u1ebd kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 tham nh\u0169ng.
C\u00f2n c\u00f3 th\u00eam hai \u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft kh\u00e1c d\u1ecdn \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng cho tham nh\u0169ng, hay n\u00f3i c\u00e1ch
kh\u00e1c, nh\u1eefng \u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n c\u1ea7n thi\u1ebft \u0111\u1ec3 h\u00e0nh \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ed1 t\u00ecnh thi\u00ean v\u1ecb (\u201ckh\u00f4ng tu\u00e2n th\u1ee7
nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc c\u00f4ng minh\u201d) c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 tham nh\u0169ng. \u0110i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n th\u1ee9 nh\u1ea5t l\u00e0 th\u00e1i \u0111\u1ed9
thi\u00ean v\u1ecb ph\u1ea3i c\u00f3 ch\u1ee7 \u0111\u00edch. Vi\u1ec7c v\u00f4 \u00fd vi ph\u1ea1m nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc c\u00f4ng minh, ch\u1eb3ng h\u1ea1n v\u00ec
thi\u1ebfu th\u00f4ng tin \u0111\u1ea7y \u0111\u1ee7, kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c coi l\u00e0 tham nh\u0169ng. Th\u1ee9 hai, ph\u1ea3i c\u00f3 \u00edch l\u1ee3i nh\u1ea5t
\u0111\u1ecbnh n\u00e0o \u0111\u00f3 cho c\u00e1 nh\u00e2n vi ph\u1ea1m nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc c\u00f4ng minh; n\u1ebfu kh\u00f4ng s\u1ebd kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3
tham nh\u0169ng. Vi\u1ec7c vi ph\u1ea1m nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc kh\u00f4ng thi\u00ean v\u1ecb \u0111\u00f4i khi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c coi l\u00e0 ph\u00e2n bi\u1ec7t \u0111\u1ed1i
x\u1eed, nh\u01b0ng l\u1ea1i kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0 tham nh\u0169ng.
Vi\u1ec7c tr\u1ee5c l\u1ee3i ho\u1eb7c d\u00e0nh l\u1ee3i th\u1ebf cho k\u1ebb h\u1ed1i l\u1ed9 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 di\u1ec5n ra d\u01b0\u1edbi nhi\u1ec1u h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c.
Ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta th\u01b0\u1eddng cho r\u1eb1ng tham nh\u0169ng c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 nh\u1eadn ti\u1ec1n (lo\u1ea1i tham nh\u0169ng n\u00e0y
th\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 nh\u1eadn h\u1ed1i l\u1ed9), nh\u01b0ng nh\u1eefng b\u1ed5ng l\u1ed9c t\u01b0\u01a1ng t\u1ef1 c\u0169ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0 m\u00f3n
qu\u00e0 \u0111\u1eaft ti\u1ec1n ho\u1eb7c nh\u1eefng \u00e2n hu\u1ec7 kh\u00e1c. T\u1eb7ng m\u1ed9t b\u1ed9 trang s\u1ee9c \u0111\u1eaft ti\u1ec1n cho v\u1ee3 c\u1ee7a
m\u1ed9t ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111\u00e3 vi ph\u1ea1m nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc c\u00f4ng minh v\u00e0 d\u00e0nh cho con trai c\u1ee7a \u00f4ng ta m\u1ed9t
c\u00f4ng vi\u1ec7c (nh\u1eb9 nh\u00e0ng) h\u1eadu h\u0129nh r\u00f5 r\u00e0ng l\u00e0 tham nh\u0169ng.
Vi\u1ec7c tr\u1ee5c l\u1ee3i ho\u1eb7c h\u01b0\u1edfng l\u1ee3i c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 di\u1ec5n ra c\u00f9ng l\u00fac v\u1edbi vi\u1ec7c vi ph\u1ea1m nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc c\u00f4ng
minh, nh\u01b0ng c\u0169ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 di\u1ec5n ra \u1edf nh\u1eefng th\u1eddi \u0111i\u1ec3m kh\u00e1c nhau. C\u1ee5 th\u1ec3, s\u1ef1 thi\u00ean v\u1ecb
c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t c\u00e1 nh\u00e2n nh\u1eadn h\u1ed1i l\u1ed9 s\u1ebd khi\u1ebfn cho k\u1ebb h\u1ed1i l\u1ed9 c\u00f3 b\u1ed5n ph\u1eadn ho\u1eb7c \u0111\u00f4i khi b\u1eaft
bu\u1ed9c ph\u1ea3i ng\u1ea5m ng\u1ea7m \u0111\u1ec1n \u0111\u00e1p l\u1ea1i s\u1ef1 \u01b0u \u00e1i \u0111\u00f3. B\u1ed5n ph\u1eadn \u0111\u00f3 s\u1ebd kh\u00f4ng m\u1ea5t \u0111i theo
th\u1eddi gian, v\u00e0 v\u00ec v\u1eady vi\u1ec7c tr\u1ee5c l\u1ee3i t\u1eeb nh\u1eefng c\u00e1 nh\u00e2n h\u1ed1i l\u1ed9 s\u1ebd v\u1eabn ti\u1ebfp t\u1ee5c trong t\u01b0\u01a1ng
lai. N\u1ebfu tr\u1ea3 \u01a1n b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1ch d\u00e0nh cho con trai c\u1ee7a \u00f4ng ta m\u1ed9t c\u00f4ng vi\u1ec7c c\u00f3 thu nh\u1eadp
cao, nh\u01b0ng c\u1eadu ta l\u1ea1i v\u1eeba b\u1eaft \u0111\u1ea7u h\u1ecdc \u0111\u1ea1i h\u1ecdc th\u00ec r\u00f5 r\u00e0ng l\u00e0 gi\u1eefa vi\u1ec7c cho v\u00e0 nh\u1eadn c\u00f3
m\u1ed9t kho\u1ea3ng c\u00e1ch v\u1ec1 th\u1eddi gian. H\u01a1n n\u1eefa, khi th\u1ecfa thu\u1eadn tham nh\u0169ng, \u0111\u00f4i khi vi\u1ec7c tr\u1ea3
\u01a1n th\u1eadm ch\u00ed kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c n\u00eau c\u1ee5 th\u1ec3 nh\u01b0ng hai b\u00ean v\u1eabn ng\u1ea7m hi\u1ec3u \u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 b\u1ed5n ph\u1eadn
c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n.
C\u00f2n m\u1ed9t \u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a n\u1eefa v\u1ec1 tham nh\u0169ng m\u00e0 Ng\u00e2n h\u00e0ng Th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi th\u01b0\u1eddng s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng.
Theo \u0111\u00f3, tham nh\u0169ng l\u00e0 \u201cl\u1ea1m d\u1ee5ng c\u00f4ng quy\u1ec1n \u0111\u1ec3 t\u01b0 l\u1ee3i\u201d. \u0110\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a n\u00e0y cho r\u1eb1ng
c\u0103n nguy\u00ean c\u1ee7a tham nh\u0169ng xu\u1ea5t ph\u00e1t t\u1eeb c\u00f4ng quy\u1ec1n v\u00e0 l\u1ea1m d\u1ee5ng c\u00f4ng quy\u1ec1n,
tham nh\u0169ng g\u1eafn li\u1ec1n v\u1edbi nh\u00e0 n\u01b0\u1edbc v\u00e0 c\u00e1c ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a nh\u00e0 n\u01b0\u1edbc, vi\u1ec7c nh\u00e0 n\u01b0\u1edbc can
thi\u1ec7p v\u00e0o th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng v\u00e0 t\u1eeb s\u1ef1 t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i c\u1ee7a khu v\u1ef1c c\u00f4ng. N\u00f3i c\u00e1ch kh\u00e1c, kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m n\u00e0y
lo\u1ea1i tr\u1eeb kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng tham nh\u0169ng x\u1ea3y ra trong khu v\u1ef1c t\u01b0 nh\u00e2n, v\u00e0 ch\u1ec9 t\u1eadp trung duy
nh\u1ea5t v\u00e0o t\u00ecnh tr\u1ea1ng tham nh\u0169ng trong khu v\u1ef1c c\u00f4ng. \u0110\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a n\u00e0y ph\u00f9 h\u1ee3p v\u1edbi

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