Three Sorts of Definitions
Analytical vs. Ostensive
How do we establish facts about meanings?
G.E. Moore's Principia Ethica
Complexes and simples
Definition in ethical theory
'Good' vs. 'The Good'
Moore and Naturalism
Other senses of ‘naturalism’
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Value
A Refinement: Inherent/Instrumental Value
The Open Question Test
Naturalistic Fallacy and Ethical Reasoning
From Non-naturalism to Intuitionism?
(1): Naturalism is false
(4) Conclusion: Intuitionism is true!
Intuitionism and Objectivity
A Note on Moore's Ethics
Value-Pluralism vs. Value-Monism
Consequentialist Ethics - Structural Points
The “Principle of Organic Unities”
Moore and Ethical Relativism
b. His theory
c. Philosophical Intuitionism
d. The "Dualism" of Practical Reason
e. Ultimate Good
Ross' Intuitionism: "Prima Facie" vs. "Sans
Prichard and “Particularism”
A different sense of 'intuitionism':
'Methodological' vs. 'Theoretical'
Evaluating Theoretical Intuitionism
1. The Metaphysical question
Subjectivism in general
Accounting for Disagreement
An "Open-Question" Argument against
"Magnetism" - or, 'Push'!
Moore and 'Magnetism'
Emotivism - A New Reaction to the Naturalistic
What's Special about Emotivism: Speech Acts as
‘Right for Jones’
Objective vs. Subjective Rightness
Emotivism and "Truth": The Tarski Paradigm
Questions about "emotive meaning"
Which non-cognitive states?
Moral Emotions? "Value-Emotions"?
Emotivism and Reason(s) in Ethics
Other Noncognitivisms: Multi-Functionalism
R. M. Hare and Prescriptivism
Prescriptions and Logic
But is Universal Prescriptivism the answer?
Morals in Freedom and Reason
'Is' and 'Ought', again: Searle’s argument
The case of Mad Harry:
1. Foot on Moral Beliefs
Commendation and its Objects
Are criteria of goodness logically open?
Evaluating under Descriptions
Means and Ends
Natural Objects: the case of stones
Natural Objects: People
Functional vs. non-functional terms
Are Experiences the only ultimately valuable
Self-Evident Values? Finnis' view
The good of knowledge
2. Naturalism Revived? Sparshott
Good Reasons in Moral Theory
Meaning vs. Use
Two Kinds of Moral Reasoning?
A Distinction: Ethics and Morals
1. Moral Relativism
Three kinds of Relativistic projects:
(1) Descriptive Relativism
(2) Meta-Ethical Relativism
(3) Normative Ethical Relativism
The Basic Question
The Fatal Flaw in Moral Relativism
Force and Reason
Psychological vs. Ethical Egoism
4a. The Theoretical Problem
4.2 Theological Ethics - Practical
7. Legalism: Law and Morals
8. The “Natural” Law
10. Innate Moral Reason
10.1 Kant’s “Categorical Imperative”
10.2. Bureaucratic Ethics: Rigorism
Morality is “Bottom-up” - Grass-Roots
The Good of Everyone Alike
Prisoner's Dilemma Problems
The Assurance Problem
Morality as the Solution?
Rational Morality as the Best Mutual Agreement
Nielsen's Critique: Why Should I Be Moral?
Independence of Morality from Particular Values
Is Reason inherently impartial? Darwall on
The individual's conception of the good
The Normative Thesis
Alan Gewirth's Argument
Critique of Gewirth's Argument
Why Buy Rights?
Counting the Cost
The Score Card
Gewirth and the Skeptic
The Modality of the Principle
Assessing Utilitarianism (I): Intuitive Discussions
A major question about Utilitarian arguments
Rule- Vs. Act- Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism and Moral Foundations
Justice as Fairness
Rawls and the Social Contract
Rawls' "Two Principles"
The "Difference" Principle
Rawls: The "Collective Choice"
Rawls' 'state of nature': The "Veil of Ignorance"
Two Views of the Veil
A Special Claim about Science vs. Ethics
Re-stating the Issue
Transparency and Translucency
A Note on Iteration
Conclusion concerning Constraint
Methodological Intuitionism: Matching our
The Foundations of Morality
The Contractarian View and Morality as a Social
De Facto vs. "Ideal" Morality
De Facto Morality
Morality as Lawlike
Informality and Decentralization
Morality as Social Contract
1. Is de facto morality a social contract?
2. The "Ideal" Social Contract
The question about "Ideal" Morality
'Ideal' = 'Rational'
Two Aspects of Participation in Morality
'Is Morality Rational?' Re-Stated
How Morality Can be Rational - even if you don't
Reason and being moral
Is Immoral Behavior Rational?
The Collective Choice
Why Universalizability: Morality is Practical
Accommodating Individual Variability
Rejection of Elitisms
The "State of Nature"
Libertarianism vs. Welfarism
Welfare and Liberty
Charity and the Social Contract
Morals and Politics
Liberty and the Social Contract
Strengthening the Argument: Gains from Imposed
Mutual Aid and the Social Contract
Arguments for Equality?
The Two - Variables Fallacy
The Cardinal Virtues
Acts or Motives?
[Additional discussion: Free Will
The "Existential" Factor
Personal Concerns vs. Moral Requirements
Unchosen Personal Obligations
Wiggins on Meaning
Meaning All Around Us
The Good Life
Meaning and Value: The Meaning of Life
The Secular Problem of Evil