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Table Of Contents

Three Sorts of Definitions
Analytical vs. Ostensive
How do we establish facts about meanings?
G.E. Moore's Principia Ethica
Moore’s "Essentialism"
Complexes and simples
Linguistic Analysis
Ostension
Definition in ethical theory
'Good' vs. 'The Good'
Moore and Naturalism
Other senses of ‘naturalism’
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Value
A Refinement: Inherent/Instrumental Value
The Open Question Test
Naturalistic Fallacy and Ethical Reasoning
From Non-naturalism to Intuitionism?
(1): Naturalism is false
(4) Conclusion: Intuitionism is true!
Ethical Intuitionism
Intuitionism and Objectivity
Supervenience
Motivation
A Note on Moore's Ethics
Consequentialism
Value-Pluralism vs. Value-Monism
Consequentialist Ethics - Structural Points
The “Principle of Organic Unities”
Moore and Ethical Relativism
b. His theory
c. Philosophical Intuitionism
d. The "Dualism" of Practical Reason
e. Ultimate Good
H.A. Prichard
Ross' Intuitionism: "Prima Facie" vs. "Sans Phrase" rightness
Prichard and “Particularism”
Who's Right?
A different sense of 'intuitionism': 'Methodological' vs. 'Theoretical'
Evaluating Theoretical Intuitionism
For:
Against:
1. The Metaphysical question
Positivism
Subjectivism in general
"Naive" Subjectivism
Accounting for Disagreement
Stevenson
An "Open-Question" Argument against Intuitionism
"Magnetism" - or, 'Push'!
Historical Note
Moore and 'Magnetism'
Emotivism - A New Reaction to the Naturalistic Fallacy
What's Special about Emotivism: Speech Acts as Expressive
Emotive Meaning
Metaethics only!
‘Right for Jones’
Blanshard’s Criticism
Objective vs. Subjective Rightness
Emotivism and "Truth": The Tarski Paradigm
Questions about "emotive meaning"
Which non-cognitive states?
Moral Emotions? "Value-Emotions"?
Emotivism and Reason(s) in Ethics
Other Noncognitivisms: Multi-Functionalism
R. M. Hare and Prescriptivism
Universality
Prescriptions and Logic
But is Universal Prescriptivism the answer?
Morals in Freedom and Reason
'Is' and 'Ought', again: Searle’s argument
The case of Mad Harry:
Semantic Subtleties
1. Foot on Moral Beliefs
Commendation and its Objects
Moral Weakness
Are criteria of goodness logically open?
Evaluating under Descriptions
Means and Ends
Which Ends?
Artifacts
Natural Objects: the case of stones
Natural Objects: People
Functional vs. non-functional terms
Intrinsic Value(s)
Ultimate Ends
The Aesthetic
Are Experiences the only ultimately valuable things?
Further Reading:
Self-Evident Values? Finnis' view
The good of knowledge
2. Naturalism Revived? Sparshott
Good Reasons in Moral Theory
Example: Abortion
Meaning vs. Use
Toulmin
Two Kinds of Moral Reasoning?
A Distinction: Ethics and Morals
Ethics
Morals
1. Moral Relativism
Three kinds of Relativistic projects:
(1) Descriptive Relativism
(2) Meta-Ethical Relativism
(3) Normative Ethical Relativism
An Ambiguity
The Basic Question
The Fatal Flaw in Moral Relativism
Force and Reason
2. Egoism
Psychological vs. Ethical Egoism
4.Theological Ethics 4a. The Theoretical Problem
4.2 Theological Ethics - Practical
5. Conscience
6. Convention
7. Legalism: Law and Morals
8. The “Natural” Law
9. Elitisms
10. Innate Moral Reason
10.1 Kant’s “Categorical Imperative”
10.2. Bureaucratic Ethics: Rigorism
Universalizability
Morality is “Bottom-up” - Grass-Roots
The Good of Everyone Alike
Prisoner's Dilemma Problems
The Assurance Problem
Morality as the Solution?
Co-ordination
Authority, again
Rational Morality as the Best Mutual Agreement
Nielsen's Critique: Why Should I Be Moral?
Independence of Morality from Particular Values
Is Reason inherently impartial? Darwall on Impartial Reason
The individual's conception of the good
The Normative Thesis
Alan Gewirth's Argument
Dialectical Necessity
Critique of Gewirth's Argument
Universalizability, again
Why Buy Rights?
Negative Rights
Positive Rights
Counting the Cost
The Score Card
Gewirth and the Skeptic
Moral Realism
The Modality of the Principle
Maximizing
Cardinality
Inter-personal Comparability
Assessing Utilitarianism (I): Intuitive Discussions
A major question about Utilitarian arguments
Rule- Vs. Act- Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism and Moral Foundations
Justice as Fairness
Rawls and the Social Contract
Rawls' "Two Principles"
Which Liberties?
The "Difference" Principle
Rawls: The "Collective Choice"
Rawls' 'state of nature': The "Veil of Ignorance"
Two Views of the Veil
Moral Realism?
Instrumental Reason
A Special Claim about Science vs. Ethics
“Objective Interests”
“Social Rationality”
Re-stating the Issue
Transparency and Translucency
A Note on Iteration
Conclusion concerning Constraint
Foundationalism
Methodological Intuitionism: Matching our "Considered Convictions"
"Reflective Equilibrium"
The Foundations
The Foundations of Morality Reading: None
The Contractarian View and Morality as a Social Institution
De Facto vs. "Ideal" Morality
De Facto Morality
"Ideal" Morality
'Deontology'
Internalization
Morality as Lawlike
Informality and Decentralization
Morality as Social Contract
1. Is de facto morality a social contract?
2. The "Ideal" Social Contract
The question about "Ideal" Morality
'Ideal' = 'Rational'
Two Aspects of Participation in Morality
'Is Morality Rational?' Re-Stated
How Morality Can be Rational - even if you don't like it!
Reason and being moral
Is Immoral Behavior Rational?
Why Morality?
The Collective Choice
"Consequentialism"/"Non-Consequentialism"
Why Universalizability: Morality is Practical
Rational Acceptability
Accommodating Individual Variability
Liberty Principles
Rejection of Elitisms
The "State of Nature"
Utilitarian Equality?
Libertarianism vs. Welfarism
Rights
Welfare and Liberty
Charity and the Social Contract
Morals and Politics
Liberty and the Social Contract
Strengthening the Argument: Gains from Imposed Losses
Mutual Aid and the Social Contract
Egalitarianism
Arguments for Equality?
Impartiality
The Two - Variables Fallacy
Virtue
Definition
The Cardinal Virtues
Acts or Motives?
MacIntyre
Moral Luck
Philosophical Generalization
[Additional discussion: Free Will
The "Existential" Factor
Personal Concerns vs. Moral Requirements
Unchosen Personal Obligations
Wiggins on Meaning
Meaning All Around Us
The Good Life
Ideals
Meaning and Value: The Meaning of Life
Games
Listism
Hedonism Revived?
The Secular Problem of Evil
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20thC_EthicalTheory

20thC_EthicalTheory

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