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CMC QNA UNIT V

# CMC QNA UNIT V

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03/23/2014

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CELLULAR

AND

MOBILE

COMMUNICATIONS

Questions

&

GRIET

–

ECE

1

UNIT-V1.Obtain the free space path loss from the transmitting end and the receivingend of the antenna. Derive the received power in dBm. How is the measuredfield strength converted into the receiver power?
Equivalent circuits of antennas:
The operating conditions of an actual antenna (Fig.1.1a) can be expressed in an equivalent circuitfor both receiving (Fig. 1.lb) and transmitting (Fig.1.1c). In Fig. 1.1, Za is the antennaimpedance; Zl is the load impedance, and Zt is the impedance at the transmitter terminal.
From the transmitting end (obtaining free-space path-loss formula):
Power Pt originates at a transmitting antenna and radiate out into space. (Equivalent circuit of atransmitting antenna is shown in Fig.1.1b.) Assume that an isotropic source Pt is used and thatthe power in the spherical space will be measured as the power per unit area. Thus power density, called the Poynting vector p or the outward flow of electromagnetic energy through agiven surface area, is expressed asA receiving antenna at a distance r from the transmitting antenna with an aperture A will receive power
Fig.1.1 (a) An actual antenna;(b) equivalent circuit of transmitting antenna;(c)equivalent circuit of a receiving antenna

CELLULAR

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Figure 1.2 is a schematic representation of received power in space.From the above equation we can derive the free-apace path-lose formula because we know therelationship between the aperture A and the gain

G
.

For a short dipole, G=1. ThenSubstitution of the above equation yields the free-space formula
Fig.1.2 Received power in spaceAt the receiving end dBµV – dBm (decibels above 1µV – decibels above 1mW):
We can obtain the received power from the Fig.1.1c

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where V is the induced voltage in volts. For a maximum power delivery Zl=Za*, where thenotation indicates complex conjugate. Then we obtain ZL + Z 2RL, where R1 is the real-loadresistance. Equat ion (5.14) becomesAssume that a dipole or a monopole is used as a receiving antenna. The induced voltage V can be related to field strength E aswhere E is expressed in volts or micro volts per meter If we set RL=50
, Pr in decibels above 1mW, and E in decibels (micro volts per meter)The notation “dBµV” in Eq. is a simplification of decibels above 1 µV/m, and has been accepted by the Institute of Radio Engineers. We can find the equivalent aperture A because the Poyntingvector p can be expressed asWhere Zo is the intrinsic impedance of the space (=120
П
). By substituting we get the equivalentaperture A.
Measuring field strength and converting it to received power: