Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Improvement of the Economic Support System in Peru on Power Generation

Improvement of the Economic Support System in Peru on Power Generation

Ratings: (0)|Views: 10 |Likes:

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, Law
Published by: Maria Angelica Rondon on Nov 28, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





"Improvement of the economic support system in Peru on powergeneration: renewable energy wind"
By Maria Angelica Rondon 
This research was conducted in order to raise the awareness of humanity on thepreservation and conservation of the environmental system (HS), since the planet as awhole is suffering from devastating natural disasters and catastrophes such ashurricanes, floods, landslides land, drought, volcanic eruptions and progressivereduction of glaciers, causing epidemics, infectious diseases, losses in crop yields andlivestock due to disease and pests, and reduced availability of water for humanconsumption, agriculture, livestock and industrial and hydroelectric power, causing thedegradation of SA and threatening the existence and health of living beings.In Peru, in the last 25 years, is losing 22% of glacier surface, causing water shortagesgradually throughout its coast. There is also an increase in the intensity of catastrophiclandslides in the mountains and Peru Ceja de Selva, moreover, are producing anincrease of droughts in the south, such as Arequipa, Moquegua, Tacna and Ayacucho,creating dire consequences loss of life, and other living things, and hurting mainly theagricultural and livestock production.That is due to variations in climate such as increased average surface temperature,precipitation and sea level rise, known as climate change (CC) anthropogenic, one ofthe most serious environmental problems, because it is a phenomenon that affectseveryone.The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC for its initials in EnglishIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), the highest scientific body that studiesthe aforementioned theme (created in the framework of the World MeteorologicalOrganization and the United Nations Conference on Environment) , has established thatthe said CC is caused by the incessant and inappropriate human activities, which we
use fossil fuels for power, transportation, and other industries, which contributenegatively to increased concentrations of gases Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions inthe atmosphere. Consequently, they are, especially the industrialized countries led by autilitarian and consumerist desire to achieve higher profits opt-mercantilist, often withthe consent of the developing countries, not realizing the serious damage andirreparable environmental damage caused to mankind.It is an indisputable fact that greenhouse gases are causing serious and irreversibleenvironmental damage to the system. In this context, both the industrialized and thedeveloping countries, are responsible for multilateral efforts, taking the necessarydecisions to reduce CO2 emissions in an equitable, fair and timely manner, produced byelectricity generation activities, because, this is the main source of that which causes somuch damage to SA.Therefore, the use of renewable energy resources-RER-as: i) wind energy; ii) solar iii)hydraulic iv) geothermal; v) biomass, and, vi) tidal, and that for the purposes of thisresearch will focus exclusively on the wind, as the primary means that scientists havepointed out, in order to reduce those emissions, and at the same time continue tosupply power to the growing population, meeting the strong demands and needs it, andbe able to respond to the search of a better quality of life for humans and others.However, initially, wind energy policies requires strong financial support to compete inthe electricity market compared to fossil fuels, given that the investment cost to produceelectricity from the latter is cheaper, in contrast, with wind whose installation andoperating costs initially are more expensive, perhaps because their technology is new,which is compounded by the limited scientific knowledge - technological development indeveloping countries, such as Peru, on the application of new electric generationalternatives.In this scenario, humans have been taking hard the great task of preserving the SA,therefore, since 1970, the Club of Rome (Swiss-based organization of scientists,economists and politicians across the global village) , commissioned the MassachusettsInstitute of Technology (MIT, for its initials in English Massachusetts Institute of
Technology), conduct an investigation in relation to population growth, economic growthand ecological footprint of the population on the planet in the next 100 years, theculminating in 1972 with the publication of the report, "Limits to Growth," concluding thatthe environmental system limits the economic development and population, as thecultivated land is finite and nonrenewable natural resources are exhaustible, therefore,but support the development of renewable energy sources, the SA will collapse and thewhole planet.That same year, 1972, in the framework of the Conference of the United NationsOrganization (UN) on the Human Environment held in Stockholm, Sweden from 5 toJune 16, was signed the "Stockholm Declaration" by all Member States of theorganization, marking a milestone as the first environmental instrument of internationallaw, which states that governments have a responsibility to preserve and conserve theSA, for the benefit of present and future generations. Since that time, these countriesmembers (192 countries) have adopted various multilateral treaties in order, to stop theharmful effects of human activity on the SA, such as: i) The "United Nations FrameworkConvention on Climate Change "signed in the city of New York, United States ofAmerica, May 9, 1992, ii) the" Convention on Biological Diversity ", in Brazil, on 5 Junethe same year, 1992, and iii) the "Kyoto Protocol" in Japan on December 11, 1997.They also adopted several statements such as: i) The "Rio Declaration", in Brazil, inJune 1992 ii) The "Millennium Declaration", in New York at the UN headquarters inSeptember 2000; iii) The "Johannesburg Declaration" in South Africa in September2002.Therefore, based on the those international instruments and standards adopted inthis framework has given rise to environmental law, which has assumed the scale of theproblem, and now, all countries try to regulate the global village a regulatory frameworkappropriate to encourage the use of wind renewable energy, raising the need toimplement economic support systems such as premium or green certificates, and thusencourage private investment in electricity generation from that, for the purpose ofprovide stability and legal security to investors by ensuring the profitability of the projectand ensuring sustainable growth of that action.

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->