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Published by barreto104
material de referencia para a formação de mecanicos demanutenção de aeronaves
material de referencia para a formação de mecanicos demanutenção de aeronaves

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Published by: barreto104 on Nov 29, 2011
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FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 43-4A, Corrosion Con-trol for Aircraft. The advisory circular is an extensivehandbook, which deals with the sources of corrosion particular to aircraft structures, as well as steps theaircraft maintenance technician can take in the courseof maintaining aircraft that have been attacked by cor-rosion.Metal corrosion is the deterioration of the metal bychemical or electrochemical attack. This type of dam-age can take place internally as well as on the sur-face. As in the rotting of wood, this deterioration maychange the smooth surface, weaken the interior, or damage or loosen adjacent parts.Water or water vapor containing salt combines withoxygen in the atmosphere to produce the main sourceof corrosion in aircraft. Aircraft operating in a marineenvironment, or in areas where the atmosphere con-tains industrial fumes that are corrosive, are particu-larly susceptible to corrosive attacks. [Figure 6-1]If left unchecked, corrosion can cause eventual struc-tural failure. The appearance of corrosion varies withthe metal. On the surface of aluminum alloys andmagnesium, it appears as pitting and etching, and is
Corrosion Control
Many aircraft structures are made of metal, and themost insidious form of damage to those structures iscorrosion. From the moment the metal is manufac-tured, it must be protected from the deleterious effectsof the environment that surrounds it. This protectioncan be the introduction of certain elements into the base metal, creating a corrosion resistant alloy, or theaddition of a surface coating of a chemical conver-sion coating, metal or paint. While in use, additionalmoisture barriers, such as viscous lubricants and pro-tectants may be added to the surface.The introduction of airframes built primarily of com- posite components has not eliminated the need for careful monitoring of aircraft with regard to corro-sion. While the airframe itself may not be subject tocorrosion, the use of metal components and acces-sories within the airframe means the aircraft mainte-nance technician must be on the alert for the evidenceof corrosion when inspecting any aircraft.This chapter provides an overview to the problemsassociated with aircraft corrosion. For more in-depthinformation on the subject, refer to the latest edition of 
Figure 6-1. Seaplane operations.
Electron conductor metalElectron conductor metalContinuous liquid path (electrolyte)Continuous liquid path (electrolyte)Unbroken paint flmNo contact betweenelectrolyte and anodeand cathodeAnodicareaCathodicareaAnodic areaCathodic area
Figure 6-3. Electrochemical attack.
often combined with a gray or white powdery deposit.On copper and copper alloys, the corrosion forms agreenish film; on steel, a reddish corrosion byproductcommonly referred to as rust. When the gray, white,green, or reddish deposits are removed, each of thesurfaces may appear etched and pitted, dependingupon the length of exposure and severity of attack.If these surface pits are not too deep, they may notsignificantly alter the strength of the metal; however,the pits may become sites for crack development, par-ticularly if the part is highly stressed. Some types of corrosion burrow between the inside of surface coat-ings and the metal surface, and can spread until the part fails.
Types of Corrosion
There are two general classifications of corrosionthat cover most of the specific forms: direct chemi-cal attack and electrochemical attack. In both types of corrosion, the metal is converted into a metallic com- pound such as an oxide, hydroxide, or sulfate. Thecorrosion process always involves two simultaneouschanges: The metal that is attacked or oxidized sufferswhat may be called anodic change, and the corrosiveagent is reduced and may be considered as undergo-ing cathodic change.
Figure 6-2. Direct chemical attack in a batterycompartment.
 by a conductor, such as salt water, will set up a seriesof corrosion cells and corrosion will commence.All metals and alloys are electrically active and havea specific electrical potential in a given chemical envi-ronment. This potential is commonly referred to as themetal’s “nobility.” [Figure 6-4] The less noble a metalis, the more easily it can be corroded. The metals cho-sen for use in aircraft structures are a studied com- promise with strength, weight, corrosion resistance,workability, and cost balanced against the structure’sneeds.The constituents in an alloy also have specific electri-cal potentials that are generally different from eachother. Exposure of the alloy surface to a conductive,corrosive medium causes the more active metal to
Direct Chemical Attack 
Direct chemical attack, or pure chemical corrosion,is an attack resulting from a direct exposure of a baresurface to caustic liquid or gaseous agents. Unlikeelectrochemical attack where the anodic and cathodicchanges may be taking place a measurable distanceapart, the changes in direct chemical attack are occur-ring simultaneously at the same point. The most com-mon agents causing direct chemical attack on aircraftare: (1) spilled battery acid or fumes from batteries;(2) residual flux deposits resulting from inadequatelycleaned, welded, brazed, or soldered joints; and(3) entrapped caustic cleaning solutions. [Figure 6-2]With the introduction of sealed lead-acid batteries andthe use of nickel-cadmium batteries, spilled batteryacid is becoming less of a problem. The use of theseclosed units lessens the hazards of acid spillage and battery fumes.Many types of fluxes used in brazing, soldering, andwelding are corrosive, and they chemically attack themetals or alloys with which they are used. Therefore,it is important to remove residual flux from the metalsurface immediately after the joining operation. Fluxresidues are hygroscopic in nature; that is, they absorbmoisture, and unless carefully removed, tend to causesevere pitting.Caustic cleaning solutions in concentrated formshould be kept tightly capped and as far from aircraftas possible. Some cleaning solutions used in corro-sion removal are, in themselves, potentially corro-sive agents; therefore, particular attention should bedirected toward their complete removal after use onaircraft. Where entrapment of the cleaning solutionis likely to occur, use a noncorrosive cleaning agent,even though it is less efficient.
Electrochemical Attack 
An electrochemical attack may be likened chemicallyto the electrolytic reaction that takes place in electro- plating, anodizing, or in a dry cell battery. The reac-tion in this corrosive attack requires a medium, usuallywater, which is capable of conducting a tiny currentof electricity. When a metal comes in contact with acorrosive agent and is also connected by a liquid or gaseous path through which electrons may flow, cor-rosion begins as the metal decays by oxidation. [Fig-ure 6-3] During the attack, the quantity of corrosiveagent is reduced and, if not renewed or removed, maycompletely react with the metal, becoming neutral-ized. Different areas of the same metal surface havevarying levels of electrical potential and, if connected
Figure 6-4. The galvanic series of metals and alloys.
+ Corroded End (anodic, or least noble)
MagnesiumMagnesium alloyZincAluminum (1100)CadmiumAluminum 2024-T4Steel or IronCast IronChromium-Iron (active)Ni-Resist Cast IronType 304 Stainless steel (active)Type 316 Stainless steel (active)Lead-Tin solderLeadTinNickel (active)Inconel nickel-chromium alloy (active)Hastelloy Alloy C (active)BrassCopperBronzeCopper-nickel alloyMonel nickel-copper alloy
Silver SolderNickel (passive)Inconel nickel-chromium alloy (passive)
Chromium-Iron (passive)Type 304 Stainless steel (passive)Type 316 Stainless steel (passive)Hastelloy Alloy C (passive)
– Protected End (cathodic, or most noble)

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