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Disease Management for Diabetes

Disease Management for Diabetes

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Disease Management for

Diabetes

DISCLAIMER: The information contained in this annotated bibliography was obtained from the publications listed. The National Pharmaceutical Council (NPC) has worked to ensure that the annotations accurately reflect the information contained in the publications, but cannot guarantee the accuracy of the annotations or the publications. There are articles available on the treatment of diabetes that are not included in this bibliography, which may include relevant
Disease Management for

Diabetes

DISCLAIMER: The information contained in this annotated bibliography was obtained from the publications listed. The National Pharmaceutical Council (NPC) has worked to ensure that the annotations accurately reflect the information contained in the publications, but cannot guarantee the accuracy of the annotations or the publications. There are articles available on the treatment of diabetes that are not included in this bibliography, which may include relevant

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Published by: National Pharmaceutical Council on Oct 20, 2008
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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DiseaseManagementfor
Diabetes
 
DISCLAIMER:The information contained in this annotated bibliography was obtained from the publications listed.The NationalPharmaceutical Council (NPC) has worked to ensure that the annotations accurately reflect the information contained in the publications, but cannot guarantee the accuracy of the annotations or the publications.There are articles available on the treatment of diabetes that are not included in this bibliography, which may include relevant information not covered herein.Theinclusion of any publication in this bibliography does not constitute an endorsement of that publication by NPC or an endorsementof the services, programs, treatments, or other information contained in such publication.This bibliography is designed for informational purposes only, and should not be construed as professional advice on any specificset of facts and circumstances.This bibliography is not intended to be a comprehensive source of disease management servicesor programs in the treatment of diabetes, or a substitute for informed medical advice.If medical advice or other expert assistanceis required, readers are urged to consult a qualified health care provider or other professional.NPC is not responsible for anyclaims or losses that may arise from any errors or omissions in the information contained in this bibliography or in the listed publi-cations, whether caused by NPC or originating in any of the listed publications, or any reliance thereon, whether in a clinical orother setting. ©February 2004 National Pharmaceutical Council, Inc.
 
Introduction
Faced with rising health care costs and limited resources,health care providers continually seek new ways to providehigh-quality, cost-efficient care.
1,2
 Years ago, diseasemanagement emerged as a strategy with the potential toachieve this goal.
3
 The Boston Consulting Group first usedthe phrase “disease management” in its current sense in a1993 report. Since that time, disease managementprograms, techniques, and models have been designed bythe pharmaceutical industry, managed care, pharmacybenefit management (PBM) plans, and most recently by stateMedicaid programs.
1,4–8
 The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and theDisease Management Association of America define diseasemanagement as a system of coordinated health careinterventions and communications for populations withconditions in which patient self-care efforts are significant.
9,10
Disease management supports the clinician-patientrelationship and plan of care, and emphasizes prevention of disease-related exacerbations and complications usingevidence-based practice guidelines and patientempowerment tools.
9,10
Disease management also evaluatesclinical, humanistic, and economic outcomes on an ongoingbasis with the goal of improving overall health.
9–11
 The goalsof disease management include:
9–11
Improving patient self-care through patient education,monitoring, and communication with members of thehealth care team.
Improving physician performance through feedback and/or reports on patient progress in compliance withprotocols.
Improving communication and coordination of servicesbetween patient, physician, disease managementorganization, and other providers.
Improving access to services, including preventionservices and prescription drugs as needed. The following functions are the main components of disease management:
9–11
Identification of patient populations.
Use of evidence-based practice guidelines.
Support of adherence to evidence-based medicalpractice guidelines by providing practice guidelines tophysicians and other providers, reporting on thepatient's progress in compliance with protocols, andproviding support services to assist the physician inmonitoring the patient.
Provision of services designed to enhance patient self-management and adherence to the patient’s treatmentplan.
Routine reporting and feedback to the health careproviders and to the patient.
Communication and collaboration among providers andbetween the patient and the patient’s providers.
Collection and analysis of process and outcomesmeasures along with a system to make necessarychanges based on the findings of the process andoutcomes measures.Disease management programs are used widely for manychronic diseases, but the most common diseases includeasthma, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, andhypertension. Considerations in selecting a disease fordisease management often include:
11,12
 Availability of treatment guidelines with consensusabout what constitutes appropriate and effective care.
Presence of generally recognized problems in therapythat are well documented in the medical literature.
Large practice variation and a range of drug treatmentmodalities.
Large number of patients with the disease whosetherapy could be improved.
Preventable acute events that often are associated withthe chronic disease (e.g., emergency department orurgent care visits).
Outcomes that can be defined and measured instandardized and objective ways and that can bemodified by application of appropriate therapy (e.g.,decreased number of emergency department visits orhospitalizations).
 The potential for costs savings within a short period(e.g., less than 3 years). Three major not-for-profit organizations whose mission isto promote quality health care have recognized thecontribution of disease management activities to qualityhealth care by establishing disease management certificationor accreditation programs. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, an independent,not-for-profit organization and the nation’s predominantstandards-setting and accrediting body in health care, offers
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Disease Management for Diabetes

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