his literature review brings together theexisting evidence o impact, outcomes andcost that exist across reciprocal exchangesystems. Time banks, complementary currenciesand peer-to-peer platorms or collaborativeconsumption are all examples o these reciprocalexchange systems, and to structure this reviewwe have created a typology o dierent types osystems to organise the evidence.The typology is designed with public services inmind, and is organised around objectives. Themain distinction drawn is between two dierentkinds o reciprocal exchange:
1. Social exchange:
designed primarily tomotivate people’s behaviour, to meet socialobjectives (inormation unction dominant).
2. Econoic exchange:
designed primarily tocirculate and to meet economic objectives(store o value unction dominant).That gives a total o our types, which provide thestructure or the rest o this report as shown inthe table below.The review has been structured to outline theevidence ound within each typology group.Within these groupings the ndings have beenstructured to describe:
An overall analysis o the evidence andliterature.
Common outcomes identied by the literature.
Where available, an outline o a ew in-depthstudies and evaluations.
Bullet pointed evidence specic to individualcase studies.
Any direct evidence o cost benets orsavings.The scope o this review was international, andthe ocus was to gather evidence on outcomesand cost benets. The evidence has been largelygathered rom academic articles and evaluations,including sel-evaluations. A comprehensivereview o the major complementary currencywebsites and online libraries has been conducted
Local National orinternationalSocialTie-based exchanges
, e.g. Member-to-Member,Skill Swap, Rushey Green, Spice, Care Banks.
co-production, building condence,skills and social networks, supporting people orpersonal change or recovery, building community.
, e.g. Nectar, Nu-spaapas, BlueDot, Young Scot, Wigan and Windsor, Time DollarYouth Court.
Nudging behaviour, reducingemissions, building loyalty, recognising eort.
, e.g. LETS, Brixton pound, Ithacahours, Stamp Scrip, Community Way, local barter.
rebuilding local economies andemployment, using local resources moreeectively, valuing local waste, tackling poverty.
, e.g. kWh money, Carbonpoints, Liberty Dollar, Terra, WIR, LLP money,goCarShare, C3.
re-valuing local renewables, revaluingagricultural produce, providing reliable currency,paying people with sustainable value, supportingSMEs.