Grade 9 Semester Exam – Physics
You will be given an exam with all the questions from previous iGCSE exam papers. It will last 1 hour The exam will be approximately split into 3 sections:
30% Multiple Choice
50% Extended answer questions,
20% Practical questions
Distance, Speed/Velocity, Acceleration, Motion graphs. Understand what the slope of thegraphs mean. Make sure you remember that the area under a v-t graph is the distance travelled. This is commonly asked on exams. Learn the equations!! speed=distance/time,acceleration=Change in Speed/time
2.Forces & Motion
F=ma, Resultant forces, Parachutists falling, cars moving forward. Learn how to cancel out theforces
P=F/A, Why are ski's wide? Knives sharp?
Basic stuff like –
squashes bonds between atoms,
stretches bonds,when things are bent there are compression forces on the shorter side and tension forces on thestretched side.
Hooke's Law, Force-Extension graphs, Force-Length graphs, Elastic limit.
6.Changes of State
You need to know that when things melt or boil the temperature doesn't change. Recognisethe graph!! Energy is being used to break the bonds so it can't be used to raise thetemperature (increase particle KE)
Heating an object increases the kinetic energy of the particles. At Absolute zero particles havestopped. Convert °C into K (+273). Apply this knowledge.Explain the following using Kinetic Theory: (use:
Expansion of solids (eg. railway tracks, thermometers, bridges)
Evaporation of liquids
If T ↑ then V↑
If T ↑ then P ↑
If V↓ then P ↑
Learn the gas law and make sure you can apply it in calculations. Always use Kelvins fortemperature. Don't forget!
Conduction - solids, metals (because of their free electrons), particles vibrating. Air is abrilliant insulator because the particles are far apart, a vacuum is the best
Convection - liquids, warm means less dense, cold means more dense, convectioncurrents move the heat, the wind is caused by them, sea breezes, Why are heaters lowdown? Air con high up?
Radiation – infra-red, heat as waves, only one that doesn't need particles, black/dull –good absorber and emitter, Shiny white or silver - good reflector and bad emitter.
Evaporation – transfers heat by the hottest liquid particles escaping as a gas, leavescolder liquid behind
10.Difference between heat and temperature
Why can you catch a 10,000K spark, but a hot bath at 50°C could burn you?
An object with a high heat capacity stores a lot of heat without the temperature rising much
12.Specific Heat Capacity
Heat = m * c * ∆T – this is the heat needed to raise 1 Kg of a material by 1 °C (or K)Learn how to use the equation.What is unusual about water?
Non-Renewable – Fossil Fuels, Nuclear
Renewable – Wind, Solar, Wave, Tidal, Geothermal, Hydro-Electric, BiomassLearn how they work and the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
14.Types of Energy & Energy Conservation
Sound, Light, Heat (Thermal), Electrical, Kinetic, Chemical Potential, Gravitational Potential,Strain/Elastic Potential.