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G9d - Semester Exam Revision Help

# G9d - Semester Exam Revision Help

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10/25/2012

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Grade 9 Semester Exam – Physics
You will be given an exam with all the questions from previous iGCSE exam papers. It will last 1 hour The exam will be approximately split into 3 sections:
A.
30% Multiple Choice
B.
C.
20% Practical questions
1.Motion
Distance, Speed/Velocity, Acceleration, Motion graphs. Understand what the slope of thegraphs mean. Make sure you remember that the area under a v-t graph is the distance travelled. This is commonly asked on exams. Learn the equations!! speed=distance/time,acceleration=Change in Speed/time
2.Forces & Motion
F=ma, Resultant forces, Parachutists falling, cars moving forward. Learn how to cancel out theforces
3.Pressure
P=F/A, Why are ski's wide? Knives sharp?
4.Materials
Basic stuff like –
compression
squashes bonds between atoms,
tension
stretches bonds,when things are bent there are compression forces on the shorter side and tension forces on thestretched side.
5.Springs
Hooke's Law, Force-Extension graphs, Force-Length graphs, Elastic limit.
6.Changes of State
You need to know that when things melt or boil the temperature doesn't change. Recognisethe graph!! Energy is being used to break the bonds so it can't be used to raise thetemperature (increase particle KE)
7.Kinetic Theory
Heating an object increases the kinetic energy of the particles. At Absolute zero particles havestopped. Convert °C into K (+273). Apply this knowledge.Explain the following using Kinetic Theory: (use:
Particle/Kinetic Energy/Collisions/Force
)
Expansion of solids (eg. railway tracks, thermometers, bridges)
Evaporation of liquids
If T ↑ then V↑
If T ↑ then P ↑
If V↓ then P ↑
8.Gas Laws
Learn the gas law and make sure you can apply it in calculations. Always use Kelvins fortemperature. Don't forget!
9.
Heat Transfer
Conduction - solids, metals (because of their free electrons), particles vibrating. Air is abrilliant insulator because the particles are far apart, a vacuum is the best
Convection - liquids, warm means less dense, cold means more dense, convectioncurrents move the heat, the wind is caused by them, sea breezes, Why are heaters lowdown? Air con high up?
Radiation – infra-red, heat as waves, only one that doesn't need particles, black/dull –good absorber and emitter, Shiny white or silver - good reflector and bad emitter.
Evaporation – transfers heat by the hottest liquid particles escaping as a gas, leavescolder liquid behind
10.Difference between heat and temperature
Why can you catch a 10,000K spark, but a hot bath at 50°C could burn you?
11.Heat Capacity
An object with a high heat capacity stores a lot of heat without the temperature rising much
12.Specific Heat Capacity
Heat = m * c * ∆T – this is the heat needed to raise 1 Kg of a material by 1 °C (or K)Learn how to use the equation.What is unusual about water?
13.Energy Resources
Non-Renewable – Fossil Fuels, Nuclear
Renewable – Wind, Solar, Wave, Tidal, Geothermal, Hydro-Electric, BiomassLearn how they work and the advantages and disadvantages of each method.
14.Types of Energy & Energy Conservation
Sound, Light, Heat (Thermal), Electrical, Kinetic, Chemical Potential, Gravitational Potential,Strain/Elastic Potential.

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, just changed from one type into another.
15.Efficiency
Everything wastes heat, so nothing is 100% efficient. Most machines are about 35% efficient,they waste lots of heat energy (and sometimes a bit of sound). Efficiency = output/input. Itcan be a number like 0.5 or we can write 50%. They mean the same thing. Old lightbulbs areabout 2% efficient.
16.Kinetic Energy & Potential Energy
Falling objects turn their Potential Energy into Kinetic Energy as they fall. The KE just beforethey hit the ground = the PE at the top. KE=½mv². PE = mgh or Weight x height
17.Work & Power
Doing Work means using energy to move something. Work is measured in Joules.Work = Force x distance & Power = Work/Time.
18.Density
Density = mass / volume. Learn how to find the density of an irregular and regular shapedobject.
Equations
Learn them and write them in words if you are unsure about the correct symbols.Remember the units too!
Speed = Distance÷Time
v=s

Acceleration = Change in Speed÷Time Taken
a=v
u
Force = Mass x Acceleration
F=ma

Pressure = Force ÷ Area
P= A
Density = Mass ÷ Volume
D=m
Work = Force x (distance moved in direction of force)
W
k
=Fs
Power = Work ÷ Time
P=
or
P=
Weight = mass x gravity
W
t
=mg
(g=10N/Kg)
K.E.=½mv² P.E.=W
t
h
Efficiency = Useful Output÷TotalInput
e=oi
Heat = mass x specific heat capacity x temperature change
Q =mcΔT
Gas Law
P
1
1
1
=
P
2
2
2

Remember that the Temperature should be inKelvins (+273)
(This equation nearly always has one variable that cancels out)
Units
mass
, Kg
Force
, N
Weight
, N
Time
, s
Heat
, J, kJ
Specific Heat Capacity
J/Kg°C
Temperature
, °C or K
Volume
, cm³, m³
Density
, Kg/m³
Pressure
, N/m², Pascals,Atmospheres, Bar, mbar