Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword or section
Like this
75Activity

Table Of Contents

0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Fundamentals of Batteries and Charge Control

Fundamentals of Batteries and Charge Control

Ratings: (0)|Views: 4,489 |Likes:
Published by DennyHalim.com

More info:

Published by: DennyHalim.com on Oct 21, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/24/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Batteries and Charge Control inStand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems
Fundamentals and Application 
January 15, 1997
Prepared for: 
Sandia National Laboratories
Photovoltaic Systems Applications Dept.PO Box 5800Albuquerque, NM 87185-0752
Prepared by: 
James P. Dunlop, P.E.
Florida Solar Energy Center
1679 Clearlake RoadCocoa, FL 32922-5703
 
Batteries and Charge Control in Photovoltaic SystemsPag
2
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report presents an overview of battery technology and charge control strategies commonly used instand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems. This work is a compilation of information from several sources,including PV system design manuals, research reports, data from component manufacturers, and lessonslearned from hardware evaluations.Details are provided about the common types of flooded lead-acid, valve regulated lead-acid, and nickel-cadmium cells used in PV systems, including their design and construction, electrochemistry andoperational performance characteristics. Comparisons are given for various battery technologies, andconsiderations for battery subsystem design, auxiliary systems, maintenance and safety are discussed.Requirements for battery charge control in stand-alone PV systems are covered, including details about thevarious switching designs, algorithms, and operational characteristics. Daily operational profiles arepresented for different types of battery charge controllers, providing an in-depth look at how these controllersregulate and limit battery overcharge in PV systems.Most importantly, considerations are presented for properly selecting batteries and matching of the chargecontroller characteristics. Specific recommendations on voltage regulation set point for different chargecontrol algorithms and battery types are listed to aid system designers.
 
Batteries and Charge Control in Photovoltaic SystemsPag
3
-------- Table of Contents --------
 INTRODUCTION_____________________________________________________________6 
Purpose ______________________________________________________________________________ 6Scope and Objectives ___________________________________________________________________ 7
 BATTERY TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW _________________________________________8
Batteries in PV Systems ________________________________________________________________ 8Battery Design and Construction_________________________________________________________ 8Battery Types and Classifications _______________________________________________________ 11
Primary Batteries______________________________________________________________________ 11Secondary Batteries ___________________________________________________________________ 11
Lead-Acid Battery Classifications _______________________________________________________ 12
SLI Batteries_________________________________________________________________________ 12Motive Power or Traction Batteries________________________________________________________ 12Stationary Batteries ___________________________________________________________________ 12
Types of Lead-Acid Batteries ___________________________________________________________ 12
Lead-Antimony Batteries _______________________________________________________________ 12Lead-Calcium Batteries _________________________________________________________________ 13Flooded Lead-Calcium, Open Vent_______________________________________________________ 13Flooded Lead-Calcium, Sealed Vent______________________________________________________ 13Lead-Antimony/Lead-Calcium Hybrid ______________________________________________________ 14Captive Electrolyte Lead-Acid Batteries ____________________________________________________ 14Gelled Batteries_____________________________________________________________________ 14Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) Batteries____________________________________________________ 15
Lead-Acid Battery Chemistry___________________________________________________________ 15
Lead-Acid Cell Reaction ________________________________________________________________ 15Formation___________________________________________________________________________ 17Specific Gravity ______________________________________________________________________ 17Adjustments to Specific Gravity ________________________________________________________ 18Sulfation____________________________________________________________________________ 18Stratification_________________________________________________________________________ 19
Nickel-Cadmium Batteries _____________________________________________________________ 19
Nickel-Cadmium Battery Chemistry ________________________________________________________ 19Sintered Plate Ni-Cads _________________________________________________________________ 20Pocket Plate Ni-Cads___________________________________________________________________ 20
Battery Strengths and Weaknesses _____________________________________________________ 21Battery Performance Characteristics ____________________________________________________ 22
Terminology and Definitions_____________________________________________________________ 22Battery Charging _____________________________________________________________________ 23Battery Discharging ___________________________________________________________________ 24Battery Gassing and Overcharge Reaction___________________________________________________ 28Flooded Batteries Require Some Gassing__________________________________________________ 29Captive Electrolyte Batteries Should Avoid Gassing _________________________________________ 29Charge Regulation Voltage Affects Gassing _________________________________________________ 29Other Factors Affecting Battery Gassing__________________________________________________ 29

Activity (75)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
aanouar77 liked this
Kavi Gopaul liked this
Taimoor Hasan liked this
ronniedakingpou liked this
charleselitb92 liked this
charleselitb92 liked this
charleselitb92 liked this
charleselitb92 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->