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Table Of Contents

SOME BASIC DEFINITIONS
GEOCENTRIC AXIAL DIPOLE MODEL
THE PRESENT GEOMAGNETIC FIELD
GEOMAGNETIC SECULAR VARIATION
ORIGIN OF THE GEOMAGNETIC FIELD
APPENDIX 1.1: ABOUT UNITS
SUGGESTED READINGS
PROBLEMS
MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS
Diamagnetism
Paramagnetism
Ferromagnetism
MINERALOGY OF FERROMAGNETIC MINERALS
Titanomagnetites
Titanohematites
Primary FeTi oxides
Iron oxyhydroxides and sulfides
FERROMAGNETISM OF FINE PARTICLES
Magnetic domains
Single-domain grains
Interaction energy
The internal demagnetizing field
Magnetocrystalline anisotropy
Hysteresis in single-domain grains
Hysteresis of multidomain grains
Pseudo-single-domain grains
Magnetic relaxation and superparamagnetism
Blocking temperatures
NATURAL REMANENT MAGNETISM (NRM)
THERMOREMANENT MAGNETISM (TRM)
Generalizing the model
PTRM
Grain-size effects
CHEMICAL REMANENT MAGNETISM (CRM)
Model of CRM formation
DETRITAL REMANENT MAGNETISM (DRM)
Depositional DRM (the classic model)
Evidence for postdepositional alignment
Brownian motion and postdepositional alignment
Lock-in of DRM
VISCOUS REMANENT MAGNETISM (VRM)
Acquisition of VRM
VRM in PSD and MD particles
Thermoviscous remanent magnetism (TVRM)
Caveats and summary
ISOTHERMAL REMANENT MAGNETISM (IRM)
COLLECTION OF PALEOMAGNETIC SAMPLES
Sample collection scheme
Display of NRM directions
Sample coordinates to geographic direction
Bedding-tilt correction
EVIDENCES OF SECONDARY NRM
Characteristic NRM
NRM distributions
IDENTIFICATION OF FERROMAGNETIC MINERALS
Microscopy
Curie temperature determination
Coercivity spectrum analysis
PARTIAL DEMAGNETIZATION TECHNIQUES
Theory of alternating-field demagnetization
Theory of thermal demagnetization
Chemical demagnetization
Progressive demagnetization techniques
Graphical displays
Some real examples
Overlapping blocking temperature or coercivity spectra
More than two components?
Principal component analysis
Advanced techniques
FIELD TESTS OF PALEOMAGNETIC STABILITY
The fold test
Synfolding magnetization
Conglomerate test
Reversals test
Baked contact and consistency tests
THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION
THE FISHER DISTRIBUTION
Computing a mean direction
Dispersion estimates
A confidence limit
Some illustrations
Non-Fisherian distributions
SITE-MEAN DIRECTIONS
SIGNIFICANCE TESTS
Comparing directions
Comparison of precision (the fold test)
PROCEDURE FOR POLE DETERMINATION
Geomagnetic pole
Virtual geomagnetic pole
Paleomagnetic pole
SAMPLING OF GEOMAGNETIC SECULAR VARIATION
Paleosecular variation
Holocene lavas of western United States
EXAMPLE PALEOMAGNETIC POLES
Paleocene intrusives of north-central Montana
Jurassic rocks of southeastern Arizona
Two problem cases
CAVEATS AND SUMMARY
PALEOINTENSITY FROM THERMOREMANENT MAGNETIZATION
INCLINATION ERROR OF DRM
BIOMAGNETISM: BIRDS DO IT, BEES DO IT
MARINE SEDIMENTS
MAGNETIC ANISOTROPY
CHEMICAL REMAGNETIZATION
THE RED BED CONTROVERSY
REFERENCES
DEVELOPMENT OF THE GEOMAGNETIC POLARITY TIME SCALE
The Pliocene–Pleistocene
Extension into the Miocene
Marine magnetic anomalies
About nomenclature
Biostratigraphic calibrations
A Late Cretaceous–Cenozoic GPTS
The Late Mesozoic
Early Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Precambrian
MAGNETIC POLARITY STRATIGRAPHY
Some general principles
The Pliocene–Pleistocene St. David Formation
Siwalik Group deposits
Siwalik sedimentology
THE GEOCENTRIC AXIAL DIPOLE HYPOTHESIS
Older geologic intervals
Second-order deviations
Paleomagnetic poles and paleogeographic maps
APPARENT POLAR WANDER PATHS
Constructing APW paths
Paleomagnetic Euler poles
PALEOGEOGRAPHIC RECONSTRUCTIONS OF THE CONTINENTS
Europe–North America reconstruction
Pangea reconstructions
Paleozoic drift of Gondwana
SOME GENERAL PRINCIPLES
THE TRANSVERSE RANGES, CALIFORNIA: A LARGE, YOUNG ROTATION
THE GOBLE VOLCANICS: AN OLDER, SMALLER ROTATION
The hemispheric ambiguity
APPENDIX: DERIVATIONS
DERIVATION OF MAGNETIC DIPOLE EQUATIONS
LAW OF SINES AND LAW OF COSINES
CALCULATION OF A MAGNETIC POLE FROM THE DIRECTION OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD
CONFIDENCE LIMITS ON POLES: dp AND dm
EXPECTED MAGNETIC FIELD DIRECTION
ROTATION AND FLATTENING IN DIRECTION SPACE
ROTATION AND POLEWARD TRANSPORT IN POLE SPACE
PALEOLATITUDES AND CONFIDENCE LIMITS
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Butler Pa Leo Magnetism Book

Butler Pa Leo Magnetism Book

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Published by: ISHTIAQ NOOR on Nov 30, 2011
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