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Lecture 8' - Entropy, Free Energy, And Equilibrium

Lecture 8' - Entropy, Free Energy, And Equilibrium

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Published by: curlicue on Oct 21, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/07/2011

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Lecture 8- Entropy, Free Energy, andEquilibrium
 
Introduction
Last lecture, we approached thermodynamics from anenergetic basis:
 – Conservation of Energy (The 1
st
Law)…
Work (w), Heat (q), and Internal Energy (E).
 – We identified several State Variables:
Internal Energy, EEnthalpy, H = E + PV
 – we discussed prediction of energy changes (
E,
H, q, w),
resulting from a change in system state (a process).
 – …and the relative probabilities of observing two states, at equilibrium.
Given knowledge of their energetic difference,
E.
However, we made no attempt to predict the direction of system changes.
 
Example
Consider the spontaneous dissociation of ATP:The 1
st
Law can be applied to this reaction:
 – reaction = change of chemical state.
analysis yields the resulting heat transfer and work…
 – however, the 1
st
law tells us nothing about the reaction’s direction.
is it spontaneous, or not?
Intuitively, we expect an equilibrium to exist,
 –  b/w ATP, ADP, and P
i
.  –  but the 1
st
Law does not tell us where it lies.

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