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Table Of Contents

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF OIL PRODUCTION
ARTIFICIAL LIFT
Types of Artificial Lift Systems
Types of Gas Lift
Continuous Flow Gas Lift
ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF GAS LIFT
Choice of Gas Lift System The
Chronological Development
Differential Valves
Bellows Charged Valves
INFLOW PERFORMANCE PREDICTION
Inflow Performance Relationship (IPR) Technique
WELL OUTFLOW PERFORMANCE PREDICTION
Example Problem
Effect of Surface Operating Conditions
Use of Inflow Performance Relationship Curves (IPR)
Computer Programs for Well Performance Analysis
Dimensionless Parameters
Empirical Data
Basis for Developing Multiphase Flow Correlations
Accuracy of Flowing Pressure at Depth Predictions
Importance of Reliable Well Test Data
Papers Evaluating the Accuracy of Multiphase Flow Correlations
Ros-Gray and Duns-Ros Correlations
Poettmann and Carpenter Correlation
Baxendell and Thomas Correlation
Two-Phase Homogeneous No-Slip Mixture Correlations
GENERAL TYPE MULTIPHASE FLOW CORRELATIONS
Published General Type Correlations
DISPLAYS OF FLOWING PRESSURE AT DEPTH GRADIENT CURVES
Converting RgO to Rg,
Gilbert’s Curves
Minimum Fluid Gradient Curve
OF PRODUCTION CONDUIT SIZE
BASIC FUNDAMENTALS OF GAS BEHAVIOR
APPLICATION TO OILFIELD SYSTEMS
Subsurface Applications
Pressure Correction
Temperature Correction
Test Rack Settings
SURFACE GAS FACILITIES
System Design Considerations
Gas Conditioning
Reciprocating Compression
Centrifugal Compression
Piping and Distribution System
Gas Metering
VALVE MECHANICS
Basic Components of Gas Lift Valves
Closing Force
Opening Forces
Valve Load Rate
Probe Test
Production Pressure Effect
Closing Pressure
VALVE CHARACTERISTICS
Valve Spread
Bellows Protection
Test Rack Opening Pressure
Classification of Gas Lift Valves by Application
Basic Valve Designs
Wireline Retrievable Valve and Mandrel
TYPES OF INSTALLATIONS
CONTINUOUS FLOW UNLOADING SEQUENCE
DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS FLOW INSTALLATIONS
Types of Design Problems
Example Graphical Design
Safety Factors in Gas Lift Design
Downhole Temperature for Design Purposes
Actual Conditions Different From Design Conditions
DESIGNING GAS LIFT FOR OFFSHORE INSTALLATIONS
DUAL GAS LIFT INSTALLATIONS
INTRODUCTION
Recommended Practices Prior to Unloading
1. Recording surface pressure in the tubing and casing
Measurement of Gas Volumes
Surface and Estimated Subsurface Temperature Readings
Visual Observation of the Surface Installation
Subsurface Pressure Surveys
Flowing Pressure and Temperature Survey
Fluid Level Determination by Acoustical Methods
Semi-Automatic Controls
Optimizing Gas Lift Systems
Automatic Optimization of Injection Gas Use
OPERATING SEQUENCE
FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCING RATE
Fallback
FALLBACK
DESIGN OF INTERMITTENT LIFT INSTALLATIONS
Fallback Method
Percent Load Method
CHAMBERS
The Time Cycle Controller
Location of Time Cycle Controller
Choke Control of the Injection Gas
UNLOADING AN INTERMITTENT INSTALLATION
Initial U-Tubing
Unloading Operations Using a time Cycle Operated Controller
ADJUSTMENT OF TIME CYCLE OPERATED CONTROLLER
Procedure for Determining Cycle Frequency
Wellhead Configuration
Separator Pressure
Surface Choke in Flowline
Flowline Size and Condition
Installation Will Not Unload
Emulsions
Corrosion
TROUBLE-SHOOTING
APPLICATIONS
TYPES OF PLUNGER LIFT
SELECTING THE PROPER EQUIPMENT
Retrievable Tubing (or Collar) Stop
Standing Valve
Bumper Spring
Plungers
Well Tubing
Master Valve
Second Flow Outlet
Lubricator
PROPER INSTALLATION PROCEDURES
SUMMARY
GLOSSARY
SYMBOLS
REFERENCES
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API Gas Lift Manual

API Gas Lift Manual

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Published by Raul Rap

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Published by: Raul Rap on Dec 01, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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