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UK; Assessment of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for New-Build Domestic Dwellings - Bradford University

UK; Assessment of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for New-Build Domestic Dwellings - Bradford University

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UK; Assessment of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for New-Build Domestic Dwellings - Bradford University
UK; Assessment of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for New-Build Domestic Dwellings - Bradford University

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Published by: Free Rain Garden Manuals on Dec 01, 2011
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A Whole Life Costing Approach for Rainwater Harvesting SystemsRichard Roebuck PhD, Bradford UniversityRainwater harvesting software from:www.SUDSolutions.com 
251
6.0 Assessment of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for New-Build Domestic Dwellings
6.1
 
Introduction
 This chapter investigates the use of RWH systems installed in new-buildhouses. Direct systems were assumed in all instances since these wererecommended by suppliers for domestic situations. Both the water savingreliability and financial performance results are presented although the focus ofthe analysis was primarily on the latter. The purpose of this investigation was toprovide data on the long-term economic viability of new-build domestic RWHsystems at the single building scale, to determine whether they present aworthwhile financial investment and, if so, under what circumstances.It was necessary to acknowledge that all not stakeholders will have the sameassessment criteria, especially with regards to the selected discount rate anddiscount period. Information presented in chapter four and appendix twodemonstrated that a range of possible values exist dependant on thestakeholder, and that selection of the most appropriate values will be influencedby the context of the investigation. Table 6.1 summarises the discount rates andperiods that were considered appropriate for use in domestic simulations andshows how the different values could be assigned to different stakeholdergroups.
 
A Whole Life Costing Approach for Rainwater Harvesting SystemsRichard Roebuck PhD, Bradford UniversityRainwater harvesting software from:www.SUDSolutions.com 
252
Table 6.1 Range of discount rates and periods used in the domesticRWH system simulations
 
Stakeholder group
1
Discount rate Discount period
Homeowner 15% 10
 
Water utility 10% 25Private sector company 5% 5LA / Government 3.5% (declining) 50
1
People or institutions to which the selected discount rates andperiods could be applicable
For each system investigated a total of three harvested water uses wereconsidered. One of the most common applications for harvested rainwater isWC flushing and generally this is the most readily accepted (WPCF, 1989;WROCS, 2000; Hills
et al 
, 2003; Lazarova, 2003). Therefore all simulationsincluded WC flushing. Vleuten-Balkema (2003) reported that garden irrigationwas viewed as an acceptable application by the majority of people and so thiswas included in the simulations with two water uses. Laundry cleaning (washingmachines) was found to be the next highest acceptable use and so this wasincluded in the simulations that had a total of three non-potable applications.The water use scenarios considered therefore consisted of WC flushing only,WC flushing plus garden irrigation, and WC flushing plus garden irrigation pluswashing machine.According to Fido
et al 
(2005) the average household occupancy in the UK was2.30 persons in 2005. A decision was taken to model occupancies in the rangeof 1-5 people as this was considered to be sufficient to cover a practical range.For each simulation sixteen tank sizes in the range of 1.2-15.0m
3
wereassessed since this was the number of domestic systems for which capital cost
 
A Whole Life Costing Approach for Rainwater Harvesting SystemsRichard Roebuck PhD, Bradford UniversityRainwater harvesting software from:www.SUDSolutions.com 
253
information was available (see appendix two, table A2.10 for a full list of thetank sizes investigated). Installation costs for each system were assumed to be£1,000 (see chapter four, section 4.7.3).All other components and costs, including maintenance activities, wereassumed to be the same for each RWH system. These are summarised belowin tables 6.2 and 6.3. Note that all prices are for the 2007 period.
Table 6.2 Universal component values used in domestic simulations
 
Component Value(s) Comments
Rainfall Daily rainfall data for Emley Moorweather stationAdapted for UKCIP (2002b)medium-high emissions climatechange scenarioCatchmentsurfaceRunoff coefficient: 0.90Initial losses: 0.25mmSee table 3.2. High value usedbecause initial losses also takeninto accountSee table 3.3 and also Fewkes(1999a)First flushdeviceNo first flush device Use of first flush devices is limitedin the UKCoarse filter Coarse filter coefficient: 0.90 Commonly applied value. Seetable 3.5Storage tank Initial degree of filling: 100%Top-up location: tankDuring commissioning and testingthe tank is filled to capacityAssumes direct RWH systemsused, see chapter 2, section 2.4.2Pump Power rating: 0.8kWPumping capacity: 80 l/minSee table 3.6UV unit No UV unit Water quality assumed to begood enough for non-potabledomestic uses providing thatcoarse filtration is provided
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