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Published by captyashpal
Marine ROTI (Rate of Turn Indicator) for facilitating executing turn around an object in restricted waters. It is a mandatory navigational equipment for vessels having GT of 50,000 and above
Marine ROTI (Rate of Turn Indicator) for facilitating executing turn around an object in restricted waters. It is a mandatory navigational equipment for vessels having GT of 50,000 and above

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Published by: captyashpal on Dec 01, 2011
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Page What is ROTI (Rate Of Turn Indicator)?
For more details please visit:www.captyashpal.blogspot.com 
Unlike road vehicles a ship does not turn sharply. With lesser friction in water and under theinfluence of momentum a vessel continues on her initial course for some time,
beginning toturn slowly and then rapidly later. Vessel thus traverses a curved track which can be treated asan arc of a circle.For small ships such arcs are small and can be executed without much problem. But for largesized merchant vessels these arcs assume greater radii and need to be treated differently. Thisbecomes all the more important when vessel is altering courses in restricted waters or in closeproximity to navigational hazards.For same reasons roundabouts are charted in traffic separation schemes.Under navigation watch keeping principles, vessel is required to do berth to berth passageplanning. It is also required to lay courses in curved segments as well, where required and tomark the wheel over positions.In view of the above, vessels having 50,000 GT and above are mandatorily required to befitted with ROTI (Rate Of Turn Indicator) as per Chapter V, SOLAS.ROTI assists OOW in planning, executing and monitoring vessel’s progress along curvedsegment of charted course.The purpose of ROTI is to provide rate of turn to port and to starboard side of ship. Theindicator is usually in the form of a circular dial with zero at top. Port turn is indicated on leftof zero and starboard turn on right of zero. Graduations are provided to indicate ROT up to atleast 30 degrees/minute on either side. ROTI can be self-contained, or it may deriveinformation from other equipment or it may form a part of the other equipment. However, thedesign is such as to preclude degradation of other equipment to which ROTI is connected,irrespective of weather ROTI is in operation or not.
 /t) is expressed in degrees per minute.Consider following diagram:AB = Initial courseBC = Final courseDE = Curved segment of charted course;D is commencement of turn and E is completion of turn.Length of the curved segment = d
= Amount of alteration in degrees (Angle MBC or Angle DOE)
in radiansR = Radius of the circle of which arc forms the partt = Time
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Page What is ROTI (Rate Of Turn Indicator)?
For more details please visit:www.captyashpal.blogspot.com 
Now, we know that, by definition, radian is the angle subtended at the center of a circle by anarc equal in length to the radius of the circle. Thus, we have:
= d/R = (V x t)/R
= (V x t)/R (Note:
is in degrees)Or,
 /t = (V x 57.3)/R in degrees /hourOr,
 /t = (V x 57.3)/60R in degrees /minuteUsing approximation and cancelling 60 and 57.3 with each other, we have:
 /t = V/R in degrees /minuteThus, we have ROT (
 /t) given by:
Let us assume that a vessel’s init
ial course is 000 (T) and final course is 060 (T).She is steaming at 15 knots and intends to negotiate a turn about an islet keeping a distance of 1.5 miles. What will be the ROT and how long will she take to complete the turn?
= V
(degrees per minute)
 t R
So, ROT = V/R = 15 / 1.5 = 10 degrees.Thus vessel will turn at the rate 10 degrees per minute, while maintaining a distance of 1.5miles from the islet.Now amount of alteration = 60 dereesThus vessel will take 60/10 = 6 minutes to complete the turn
In this method radius R is kept constant.We have seen that rate of turn (ROT) is given by (
 /t) = V/ROr, R = V/ (
 /t)If radius R is to be kept constant, the expression on the RHS will have to be kept constant. Butas vessel turns, velocity V reduces. Thus ROT (
 /t) will have to be varied proportionately so askeep R as constant. Thus in
 constant radius turn
ROT does not remain same and changes as
= V
(degrees per minute)
 t R
3 |
Page What is ROTI (Rate Of Turn Indicator)?
For more details please visit:www.captyashpal.blogspot.com 
vessel negotiates the turn. Constant radius turn is negotiated in the following two ways,depending on weather the object ‘O’ is visible or imaginary.
Object ‘O’ available as visually or radar conspicuous feature:
With O as center and R as radius draw an arc. (The value of R will be decided byOOW/Master and will depend on vessel’s size, draft, weather conditions, proximityto other dangers etc,).2.
Draw AB and BC as tangents to the arc, representing initial and final courses
Object ‘O’ not available as visually or radar conspicuous feature:
Draw AB and BC as initial and final courses respectively.2.
Choose suitable value of R depending on size, loading condition of v
essel, weatherconditions etc.3.
Calculate BD = BE = R tan
Draw small arcs, with radius R, from D and E to cut at O.5.
Now O as center and R as radius, draw arc DE. This is the curved segment of theplanned course.
Object O is visually conspicuous:
We know that any radius to the point of contact of a tangent is perpendicular to thetangent. This means that for vessel to remain on the curved track, the object O mustremain abeam or very nearly abeam. If the object is falling abaft the beam, it meansthat vessel is going outside the arc ( or she is turning slowly) and ROT needs to beincreased by giving greater helm.Conversely, if object is moving ahead of beam, vessel is going inside thearc (or she is turning too fast) and ROT needs to reduced by easing the helm.
Object O is radar conspicuous:
In this case VRM along with parallel indexing techniques is utilized for keeping thevessel on the curved segment of the track. Both RM and TM modes are equallysuitable for the procedure.
Object O is imaginary:
In this case vessel’s position has to be closely monitored at more frequent intervals toensure that the vessel stays at the curved segment of the track.
With ECDIS onboard:
ECDIS has brought a revolutionary change in the way we navigate ships. The waycomputers have made many old human skills irrelevant; ECDIS is also likely to playthe same role. As per IMO performance standards for “route planning and monitoring”on ECDIS, it should be possible to draw both straight and curved segments of plannedcourses. Thus, executing and monitoring ship’s progress along any curved segment isvery easy. The fact that the courses drawn can be seen against the background of charton the screen itself makes the procedure a very simple task. ECDIS provides real timefixing. Hence, OOW knows where the vessel is at any moment rather than where thewas few moments ago.

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