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Photo Voltaic Systems_ Solar Energy Based Technology

Photo Voltaic Systems_ Solar Energy Based Technology

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Published by Ionela
The photovoltaic system (a solar energy based technology) is the system that uses solar energy technology to convert light in electricity. The conversion of the solar energy in electric energy, through the physical phenomenon of the luminous radiation interaction with the valence electrons in the semiconductor materials, is named photovoltaic effect. Let's explain, briefly, the semiconductor electric properties.
The photovoltaic system (a solar energy based technology) is the system that uses solar energy technology to convert light in electricity. The conversion of the solar energy in electric energy, through the physical phenomenon of the luminous radiation interaction with the valence electrons in the semiconductor materials, is named photovoltaic effect. Let's explain, briefly, the semiconductor electric properties.

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Published by: Ionela on Oct 22, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/11/2012

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Photovoltaic systems: solar energy based technologyhttp://dev.emcelettronica.com/print/519911 din 621.10.2008 21:36
Your Electronics Open Source
(http://dev.emcelettronica.com)
Home > Blog > arag61's blog > Contenuti
Photovoltaic systems: solar energy basedtechnology
By arag61Created 10/13/2008 - 21:36
Technology photovoltaic cell photovoltaic system solar energy technology solar photovoltaiccellPhotovoltaic systems uses solar energy technology.The silicon atom has 14 electrons, 4 of these are valence electrons ; in a silicon pure crystalevery atom is joined in covalent manner to 4 other electrons: every valence electron join toanother valence electron. The transition from the valence band to the conduction band takesplace transmitting to the electron a proper amount of energy. During this transmission theelectron leaves behind it a hole called “gap” that can be occupied from another electron. Theelectrons movement involves, as a consequence, the “gaps” movement.The conversion of the solar energy in electric energy occurs utilizing the effect caused from aluminous flow that hits a “doped” semiconductor material. Every photon, that has enoughenergy, according to the connection E = h •
λ
(where h is the Plank constant and
λ
is theradiation wavelenght), can release inside the P-N junction an electron – gap couple. Usingthe silicon as semiconductor, the minimum energy required to release an electron – gapcouple is equivalent to the highest wavelenght of the luminous radiation (1.15µm). Anyway,as the wavelenght decreases, the photons have a more and more higher energy and thisenergy is excessive compared to the one needed to release the electron – gap couple. As aconsequence, the solar energy percentage that can be converted in electric energy do notexceed 44 %, the remaining 56 % is converted in heat.The main used semiconductors are :- Silicon (Si);- Germanium (Ge)- Gallium arsenide (GaAs)- Cadmium sulfide (CdS)- Copper sulfide (Cu2S)- Cells at multiple junction (Tandem)
Equivalent circuit of a photovoltaic cell
The efficiency of the photovoltaic silicon cells, in the laboratory tests also, is very far from thetheoretical 44 % value since further inefficiencies arise:1 Many, but not all the photons that hit the photovoltaic cell penetrate inside it, some arereflected and some are intercepted from the frontal electrode (Rs resistance – see thefollowing drawing)2 Some electron – gap couples join again among themselves before they can be separatedfrom the electric field that is inside the junction (purity silicon level)3 Some quantity of the potential energy transferred to the cell is not sufficient to release theelectron – gap couple (diode – see the following drawing)
 
Photovoltaic systems: solar energy based technologyhttp://dev.emcelettronica.com/print/519912 din 621.10.2008 21:36
Below there is an equivalent circuit of a photovoltaic cell. In the following drawings we have the graphics related to:1. voltage – current properties2. electric property related to the temperature3. electric property related to the solar radiation4. I-V property and power trend of a solar cell 
 
Photovoltaic systems: solar energy based technologyhttp://dev.emcelettronica.com/print/519913 din 621.10.2008 21:36
 

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