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Table Of Contents

The User Interface —An Introduction and Overview
Defining the User Interface
The Importance of Good Design
The Benefits of Good Design
A Brief History of the Human-Computer Interface
Introduction of the Graphical User Interface
The Blossoming of the World Wide Web
A Brief History of Screen Design
What’s Next?
Interaction Styles
Characteristics of Graphical and Web User Interfaces
Command Line
Menu Selection
Form Fill-in
Direct Manipulation
Anthropomorphic
The Graphical User Interface
The Popularity of Graphics
The Concept of Direct Manipulation
Graphical Systems: Advantages and Disadvantages
Characteristics of the Graphical User Interface
The Web User Interface
The Popularity of the Web
Characteristics of a Web Interface
The Merging of Graphical Business Systems and the Web
Characteristics of an Intranet versus the Internet
Extranets
Web Page versus Application Design
Principles of User Interface Design
Principles for the Xerox STAR
General Principles
Part 1 Exercise
Obstacles and Pitfalls in the Development Path
Designing for People: The Seven Commandments
Usability
Usability Assessment in the Design Process
Common Usability Problems
Some Practical Measures of Usability
Some Objective Measures of Usability
Understanding How People Interact with Computers
Know Your User or Client
The Human Action Cycle
Why People Have Trouble with Computers
Responses to Poor Design
People and Their Tasks
Important Human Characteristics in Design
Perception
Memory
Sensory Storage
Visual Acuity
Foveal and Peripheral Vision
Information Processing
Mental Models
Movement Control
Learning
Skill
Performance Load
Individual Differences
Human Considerations in the Design of Business Systems
The User’s Knowledge and Experience
The User’s Tasks and Needs
The User’s Psychological Characteristics
The User’s Physical Characteristics
Human Interaction Speeds
Performance versus Preference
Methods for Gaining an Understanding of Users
Step 1 Exercise
Business Definition and Requirements Analysis
Information Collection Techniques
Defining the Domain
Considering the Environment
Possible Problems in Requirements Collection
Determining Basic Business Functions
Understanding the User’s Work
Developing Conceptual Models
The User’s New Mental Model
Design Standards or Style Guides
Value of Standards and Guidelines
Customized Style Guides
Design Support and Implementation
System Training and Documentation Needs
Training
Documentation
Step 2 Exercise
Human Considerations in Interface and Screen Design
How to Discourage the User
What Users Want
What Users Do
Interface Design Goals
The Test for a Good Design
Screen and Web Page Meaning and Purpose
Organizing Elements Clearly and Meaningfully
Consistency
Starting Point
Ordering of Data and Content
Visually Pleasing Composition
Distinctiveness
Focus and Emphasis
appearance
Presenting Information Simply and Meaningfully
Application and Page Size
Application Screen Elements
Organization and Structure Guidelines
Intranet Design Guidelines
Extranet Design Guidelines
Small Screens
Weblogs
Statistical Graphics
Types of Statistical Graphics
Flow Charts
Technological Considerations in Interface Design
Graphical Systems
Web Systems
The User Technology Profile Circa 2006
Examples of Screens
Example 1
Example 2
Example 3
Example 4
Example 5
Example 6
Example 7
Step 3 Exercise
Develop System Menus and Navigation Schemes
Structures of Menus
Single Menus
Sequential Linear Menus
Simultaneous Menus
Hierarchical or Sequential Menus
Connected Menus
Event-Trapping Menus
Functions of Menus
Navigation to a New Menu
Execute an Action or Procedure
Displaying Information
Data or Parameter Input
Content of Menus
Menu Context
Menu Title
Choice Descriptions
Completion Instructions
Formatting of Menus
Display
Presentation
Organization
Complexity
Item Arrangement
Ordering
Groupings
Selection Support Menus
Phrasing the Menu
Menu Titles
Menu Choice Descriptions
Menu Instructions
Intent Indicators
Keyboard Shortcuts
Selecting Menu Choices
Initial Cursor Positioning
Choice Selection
Defaults
Unavailable Choices
Mark Toggles or Settings
Toggled Menu Items
Web Site Navigation
Web Site Navigation Problems
Web Site Navigation Goals
Web Site Navigation Design
Maintaining a Sense of Place
Kinds of Graphical Menus
Menu Bar
Pull-Down Menu
Cascading Menus
Pop-Up Menus
Tear-Off Menus
Iconic Menus
Pie Menus
Graphical Menu Examples
Window Characteristics
The Attraction of Windows
Constraints in Window System Design
Components of a Window
Frame
Title Bar
Title Bar Icon
Window Sizing Buttons
What’s This? Button
Status Bar
Scroll Bars
Split Box
Toolbar
Command Area
Size Grip
Work Area
Window Presentation Styles
Tiled Windows
Overlapping Windows
Cascading Windows
Picking a Presentation Style
Types of Windows
Primary Window
Secondary Windows
Dialog Boxes
Property Sheets and Property Inspectors
Message Boxes
Palette Windows
Pop-Up Windows
Organizing Window Functions
Window Organization
Number of Windows
Sizing Windows
Window Placement
The Web and the Browser
Browser Components
Step 5 Exercise
Input Devices
Select the Proper Interaction Devices
Characteristics of Input Devices
Other Input Devices
Selecting the Proper Input Device
Output Devices
Screens
Speakers
Step 6 Exercise
Choose the Proper Screen-Based Controls
Operable Controls
Buttons
Text Entry/Read-Only Controls
Text Boxes
Selection Controls
Radio Buttons
Check Boxes
Combo Boxes
Drop-Down/Pop-Up Combo Boxes
Other Operable Controls
Slider
Tabs
Date-Picker
Tree View
Custom Controls
Presentation Controls
Static Text Fields
Group Boxes
Column Headings
ToolTips
Balloon Tips
Progress Indicators
Sample Box
Scrolling Tickers
Selecting the Proper Controls
Entry versus Selection—A Comparison
Comparison of GUI Controls
Control Selection Criteria
Choosing a Control Form
Examples
Step 7 Exercise
Write Clear Text and Messages
Words, Sentences, Messages, and Text
Readability
Choosing the Proper Words
Writing Sentences and Messages
Kinds of Messages
Presenting and Writing Text
Window Title, Conventions, and Sequence Control Guidance
Content and Text for Web Pages
Words
Page Text
Page Title
Headings and Headlines
Instructions
Error Messages
Step 8 Exercise
Provide Effective Feedback and Guidance and Assistance
Providing the Proper Feedback
Response Time
Dealing with Time Delays
Blinking for Attention
Use of Sound
Guidance and Assistance
Preventing Errors
Problem Management
Providing Guidance and Assistance
Instructions or Prompting
Help Facility
Contextual Help
Task-Oriented Help
Reference Help
Wizards
Hints or Tips
Step 9 Exercise
International Considerations
Localization
Cultural Considerations
Words and Text
Images and Symbols
Color, Sequence, and Functionality
Requirements Determination and Testing
Accessibility
Types of Disabilities
Accessibility Design
Step 10 Exercise
Create Meaningful Graphics, Icons, and Images
Icons
Kinds of Icons
Characteristics of Icons
Influences on Icon Usability
Choosing Icons
Choosing Icon Images
Creating Icon Images
Drawing Icon Images
Icon Animation and Audition
The Icon Design Process
Screen Presentation
Multimedia
Graphics
Images
Photographs/Pictures
Video
Diagrams
Drawings
Animation
Audition
Combining Mediums
Step 11 Exercise
Dithering
Color Uses
Color as a Formatting Aid
Color as a Visual Code
Other Color Uses
Possible Problems with Color
High Attention-Getting Capacity
Interference with Use of Other Screens
Varying Sensitivity of the Eye to Different Colors
Color-Viewing Deficiencies
Color Connotations
Cross-Disciplinary and Cross-Cultural Differences
Color—What the Research Shows
Color and Human Vision
The Lens
The Retina
Choosing Colors
Choosing Colors for Categories of Information
Colors in Context
Usage
Discrimination and Harmony
Emphasis
Common Meanings
Location
Foregrounds and Backgrounds
Three-Dimensional Look
Color Palette, Defaults, and Customization
Grayscale
Text in Color
Monochromatic Screens
Considerations for People with Color-Viewing Deficiencies
Cultural, Disciplinary, and Accessibility Considerations
Choosing Colors for Textual Graphic Screens
Effective Foreground/Background Combinations
Choose the Background First
Maximum of Four Colors
Use Colors in Toolbars Sparingly
Test the Colors
Choosing Colors for Statistical Graphics Screens
Number of Colors
Backgrounds
Size
Status
Measurements and Area-Fill Patterns
Physical Impressions
Choosing Colors for Web Pages
Uses of Color to Avoid
Step 12 Exercise
Organizing and Laying Out Screens
General Guidelines
Organization Guidelines
Control Navigation
Window Guidelines
Web Page Guidelines
Screen Examples
The Purpose of Usability Testing
The Importance of Usability Testing
Scope of Testing
Prototypes
Hand Sketches and Scenarios
Interactive Paper Prototypes
Programmed Facades
Prototype-Oriented Languages
Comparisons of Prototypes
Kinds of Tests
Guidelines and Standards Review
Heuristic Evaluation
Cognitive Walk-Throughs
Developing and Conducting a Test
Test Conduct and Data Collection
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The Essential Guide to User Interface Design 3rd Edition

The Essential Guide to User Interface Design 3rd Edition

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Published by: Josh_Cuzzort_6860 on Dec 02, 2011
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11/26/2013

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