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Section 5

# Section 5

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09/23/2010

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SECTION 5UNDERSAMPLING APPLICATIONS
Fundamentals of UndersamplingIncreasing ADC SFDR and ENOB using External SHAsUse of Dither Signals to Increase ADC Dynamic RangeEffect of ADC Linearity and Resolution on SFDR andNoise in Digital Spectral Analysis ApplicationsFuture Trends in Undersampling ADCs

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SECTION 5UNDERSAMPLING APPLICATIONS
Walt Keste
An exciting new application for wideband, low distortion ADCs is called
undersampling
,
harmonic sampling
,
bandpass sampling
, or
Super-Nyquist Sampling
. To understand these applications, it is necessary to review the basics othe sampling process.The concept of discrete time and amplitude sampling of an analog signal is shown inFigure 5.1. The continuous analog data must be sampled at discrete intervals, ts,which must be carefully chosen to insure an accurate representation of the originalanalog signal. It is clear that the more samples taken (faster sampling rates), themore accurate the digital representation, but if fewer samples are taken (lowersampling rates), a point is reached where critical information about the signal isactually lost. This leads us to the statement of Shannon's Information Theorem andNyquist's Criteria given in Figure 5.2. Most textbooks state the Nyquist theoremalong the following lines:
A signal must be sampled at a rate greater than twice itsmaximum frequency in order to ensure unambiguous data
. The general assumptionis that the signal has frequency components from dc to some upper value, f a. TheNyquist Criteria thus requires sampling at a rate f s> 2f ain order to avoidoverlapping aliased components. For signals which do not extend to dc, however, theminimum required sampling rate is a function of the
bandwidth
of the signal as wellas its position in the frequency spectrum.
SAMPLING AN ANALOG SIGNALFigure 5.1

3
SHANNON’S INFORMATION THEOREMAND NYQUIST’S CRITERIAShannon:

An Analog Signal with a
Bandwidth
of f
a
Must be Sampledat a Rate of f
s
>2f
a
in Order to Avoid the Loss ofInformation.The signal bandwidth may extend from DC to f
a
(
Baseband Sampling
) or from f
1
to f
2
, where f
a
= f
2
- f
1
(
Undersampling,Bandpass Sampling, Harmonic Sampling, Super-Nyquist
)Nyquist:

If f
s
<2f
a
, then a Phenomena Called
Aliasing
Will Occur.Aliasing is used to advantage in undersamplingapplications.Figure 5.2
In order to understand the implications of
aliasing
in both the time and frequencydomain, first consider the four cases of a time domain representation of a sampledsinewave signal shown in Figure 5.3. In Case 1, it is clear that an adequate numberof samples have been taken to preserve the information about the sinewave. In Case2 of the figure, only four samples per cycle are taken; still an adequate number topreserve the information. Case 3 represents the ambiguous limiting condition wheres=2a.If the relationship between the sampling points and the sinewave were suchthat the sinewave was being sampled at precisely the zero crossings (rather than atthe peaks, as shown in the illustration), then all information regarding the sinewavewould be lost. Case 4 of Figure 5.3 represents the situation where f s<2a, and theinformation obtained from the samples indicates a sinewave having a frequencywhich is lower than s /2, i.e. the out-of -band signal is
aliased
into the Nyquistbandwidth between dc and f s /2. As the sampling rate is further decreased, and theanalog input frequency f aapproaches the sampling frequency f s, the aliased signalapproaches dc in the frequency spectrum.