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Fish Cytogenetics, Genotoxicity and Mutagenesis. (5-12-1998)

Fish Cytogenetics, Genotoxicity and Mutagenesis. (5-12-1998)

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Invited Lecture 5-12-98. “Fish Cytogenetics, Genotoxicity and Mutagenesis”. Training Course on Genetics and Biotechnological tools in Aquaculture and Fisheries. Central Institute of Fisheries Education. Mumbai.
Invited Lecture 5-12-98. “Fish Cytogenetics, Genotoxicity and Mutagenesis”. Training Course on Genetics and Biotechnological tools in Aquaculture and Fisheries. Central Institute of Fisheries Education. Mumbai.

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Published by: Dr.Mrs.Krishnaja A. P. on Oct 22, 2008
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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08/02/2014

 
Okvoth` Ihaturh 8-3<-?2. ’Nosb Aytjghkhtoas, Ghkjtjxoaoty ck` utcghkhsos!. "rcokokg Ajursh jkGhkhtoas ck` #ojthabkj$jgoac$ tjj$s ok %&ucau$turh ck` Nosbhrohs. Ahktrc$ Okstotuth j' Nosbhrohs(`uactojk. u)*co. A%+ "rcokokg rjgrc))h ckuc$ - Ghkhtoa ck` #ojthabkj$jgoac$ tjj$s ok %&ucau$turh ck`Nosbhrohs. .3-38. 3??2.<<
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NO+ A"/G(1("OA+, G(1/"/0OAO" %1 >"%G(1(+O+7rosbkcc, %. .Ah$$ #oj$jgy ovosojk#bc*bc %tj)oa hshcrab Ahktrhu)*co. 4 28.NO+ A"/G(1("OA+5Ok rhahkt yhcrs, 'osbhs bcvh *hhk tbh su*hat j' ck okarhcsokg ku)*hr j' aytjghkhtoa okvhstogctojks ok tbhcrhc j' +ysth)ctoas, osaoau$turh ck` utcghkhsos. %$$ tbh sc)h, aytjghkhtoa stu`ohs jk 'osbhs 9hrh $jkg $cguh` *y thabkoac$ rj*$h)s. "bjugb 'osbhs rhrhshkt 'jrty tbrhh hrahkt j' tbh $ovokg vhrth*rcths, hvhktj`cy )cky j' tbh 'osb shaohs sto$$ rh)cok tj *h =cryjtyh`."bh rco`$y `ovo`okg *$cstj)hrhs j' tbh hcr$y h)*ryj rjvo`h` tbh suotc*$h )cthroc$ ok )jst j' tbh ojkhhrokg stu`ohs jk 'osb abrj)jsj)hs. % )cjr `o''oau$ty 9otb rhgcr` tj tbos )htbj` os tbh rj*$h) j' j*tcokokg h)*ryjs. +hatojkokg j' thstos ck` thstos s&ucsbhs bcvh c$sj *hhk h)$jyh` ok shvhrc$ 'osbabrj)jsj)h stu`ohs. j9hvhr, tbos thabko&uh os ush'u$ jk$y ct to)hs j' catovh shr)ctjgjkoc$ rj$o'hrctojk, 9boab 'jr )jst shaohs os c )jktb jr t9j ust rojr tj tbh sc9kokg shcsjk.rcatoac$ uto$osctojk j' 'osb =cryjtyhs okvj$vokg `htco$s j' abrj)jsj)h )jrbj$jgy, bc` tj c9cot tbh`hvh$j)hkt j' c rhc`o$y c$oh` thabko&uh, j' go$$ hotbh$oc$ s&ucsbhs c'thr trhct)hkt 9otb aj$aboaokh ck`byjtjkoa trhct)hkt, *y abco$ ck` ;jkhs ok 3?::. #ut tossuh s&ucsbhs `j j'thk rhsu$t ok $j9 ku)*hrs j'  jjr$y srhc` )otjtoa rhcrctojks ck` ok c``otojk rh&uorh ahrtcok `hgrhh j' )ckou$ctjry `hxthroty.jrhjvhr, 9ht rhcrctojks bcvh tbh `osc`vcktcgh j' c sbjrt ush'u$ $o'h ck` rh&uorh rh'roghrcth` stjrcgh. Ah$$ au$turh thabko&uhs usokg c vcrohty j' tossuhs, 9bo$h rjvo`okg c ku)*hr j' hxah$$hkt srhc`s govokggjj` rhsj$utojk j' abrj)jsj)h `htco$s, rh&uorh $c*jrctjry 'cao$otohs kjt c$9cys cvco$c*$h. "bh c`vhkt j' tbhush j' `orhat rhcrctojks *y cor `ry )htbj` bhrc$`h` ok c kh9 hrc ok 'osb aytjghkhtoa stu`ohs. 7$oghr)ckck` #$jj) ok 3?F8 `hsaro*h` c )htbj` 'jr rco` abrj)jsj)h rhcrctojks 'rj) sj$o` tossuhs j' 'osbhs9boab os *jtb okhxhksovh ck` so)$hr. "bh rjgrhss jvhr tbh yhcrs bcs *hhk rctbhr s$j9 aj)crh` tj)c))c$ock aytjghkhtoas, ck` ok )cky crhcs, Nosb Aytjghkhtoas sto$$ rh)coks c vorgok 'oh$`."bos kh9 sjurah j' `ctc okvj$vokg abrj)jsj)h ku)*hr ck` )jrbj$jgy, bcs *hhk rhahovokg okarhcsokgctthktojk ck` sbj9s bogb rj)osh 'jr okthrrhtokg tbh hvj$utojk j' 'osbhs. "bh systh)ctoa c$oactojk j' =cryj$jgy os kj9 cssurh`, *ut ot os sto$$ tjj hcr$y tj =kj9 rhaosh$y 9bct ots vc$uh 9o$$ *h 'jr `o''hrhktgrjus j' 'osbhs. 7cryjtyhs crh tbus shhk tj *h c ush'u$ tjj$ 'jr systh)ctoa crcosc$ j' )cky okto)cth$yrh$cth` aj)cat grjus j' 'osbhs, ck` ot os rh`oatc*$h tbct tbhy 9o$$ *h j' vc$uh ok jtbhr, rhahkt$y`o''hrhktocth` grjus cs 9h$$. Njr hxc)$h, )cky so*$okg shaohs )cy bcvh `ostokat$y `o''hrhkt =cryjtyhs *hacush j' j*hrtsjkock 'usojks, C+htLhr,3?F, 9bhrh cs )cky j*vojus$y `ostokat shaohs ok `o''hrhkt'c)o$ohs jr hvhk `o''hrhkt jr`hrs sbj9 vortuc$$y o`hktoac$ =cryjtyhs cs ok sj)h '$ct'osbhs, suk'osbhs ck`ckabjvohs. C/bkj, 3?F. Nosbhs sbj9 c grhct `ovhrsoty ok =cryjtyhs, tbh `o$jo` kj. rckgokg *ht9hhk cs$j9 cs 3: ck` cs bogb cs <4. hroahktroa okvhrsojks $cyh` c )cjr rj$h ok tbh hvj$utojk j' =cryjtyhs j)cky 'osbhs, tbjugb ahrtcok $hss sogko'oackt abrj)jsj)h rhcrrckgh)hkts j'thk ack *h uto$osh` tj`ostokguosb a$jsh$y rh$cth` shaohs. hrbcs ok kj grju j' vhrth*rcths, jtbhr tbck 'osbhs `j rh)jth arjssokgs, *jtb okthrshao'oa ck`okthrghkhroa, jaaur sj 'rh&uhkt$y ok kcturh rj`uaokg ku)hrjus by*ro`s, "bos os crtoau$cr$y truh j' 'rhsb9cthr 'osbhs, 9bhrh rhrj`uatovh osj$ctojk os c$sj voj$cth` )jrh 'rh&uhkt$y tbck ok )crokh 'osbhs.
 
y*ro`osctojk, 9otb c voh9 tj aj)*okh tbh *hkh'oaoc$ &uc$otohs j' t9j *rhh`s, bcs c$rhc`y hksajkah` cs ckh''hatovh tjj$ ok 'osb au$turh. Ok'jr)ctojk jk tbh aytjghkhtoa rj'o$h j' crhktc$ shaohs 9otb c voh9 tj`hthat c jsso*$h )cr=hr abrj)jsj)h ok tbh by*ro`s ack rjvh tj *h vhry ush'u$ ok suab stu`ohs. %k h''jrtok tbos `orhatojk bcs *hhk )c`h cs hcr$y cs 3?F8C7rosbkcc ck` hgh. Aytjghkhtoa, cs 9h$$ cs *ojabh)oac$ ghkhtoa )cr=hrs $o=h bch)jg$j*oks ack rjvh ush'u$ kjt jk$y ok osaoau$turh okvj$vokgby*ro`osctojk *ut c$sj ok tbh o`hkto'oactojk j' kcturc$ by*ro`s, hshaoc$$y sokah tbh grjss )jrbj$jgoac$ abcrcathrs ush` 'jo`hkto'oactojk ack ct to)hs *h )os$hc`okg. C7rosbkcc, 3?F:@ 7rosbkcc ck` hgh, 3?FF@ 7rosbkcc ck`hgh,3?F?. "bh c`vcktcgh j' bch)jg$j*ok stu`ohs ok tbos rhshat ack bcr`$y *h jvhr h)bcsosh`, sokah otos $hcst c''hath` *y hkvorjk)hktc$ 'catjrs uk$o=h sj)h jtbhr rjthoks. Abrj)jsj)h stu`ohs h)$jyokghotbh$oc$ ah$$s 'rj) sac$hs, 'ok, ajrkhc hta. hotbhr `orhat$y jr *y sbjrt thr) au$turh 9ju$` bcvh 9o`hr sajhok systh)ctoa by*ro`osctojk stu`ohs, sokah suab c thabko&uh `jhs kjt hktco$ scaro'oaokg tbh hxhro)hktc$cko)c$s. C7rosbkcc ck` hgh,3?2. % rhahkt stu`y strhssh` tbh o)jrtckah j' aytjghkhtoa o`hkto'oactojkj' *rhh`hrs ok tbh h''oaohkt ghkhtoa )ckcgh)hkt j' 'osb stja=s Cjrtj-Njrhsto ht. c$.,3??2. Ok tbos crtoau$cr okstckah, ck okvhrsojk okvj$vokg tbh kua$hj$cr jrgckoLhr rhgojk , ok bj)jLygjth ajk`otojk 9cs 'juk` tj *h$htbc$ ok stja= rcok*j9 trjut ck` )cy acush hajkj)oa $jsshs ok tbh au$turh j' tbos shaohs.j$y$jo`y 9boab bcs *hhk vhry o)jrtckt ok $ckt hvj$utojk, shh)s tj bcvh $cyh` c$)jst kj rj$h okcko)c$ hvj$utojk. j$y$jo`y ok cko)c$s usuc$$y ushts tbh shx `hthr)okctojk )habckos) ck` tbos bcsghkhrc$$y *hhk cssu)h` tj *$ja= tbh suaahss'u$ hstc*$osb)hkt j' $jo`y. j9hvhr ok 'osbhs, tbhrh crhacshs ok 9boab ot chcrs tbct c sokg$h j$y$jo` hvhkt bcs govhk rosh tj ck hktorh tcxjkj)oa 'c)o$y okhvj$utojk. +c$)jko`ch 'c)o$y j' 'osbhs aj)rosokg +c$)jk ck` "rjut os c 'c)o$ocr hxc)$h j' c grju,tbct chcrs tj *h jrogokcth` tbrjugb j$y$jo`y. +c$)jko`s bcvh t9oah cs )uab cs 1% cs rh$cth` 'osb.o''hrhkt +c$)jko` shaohs bcvh `o''hrhkt abrj)jsj)h ku)*hrs, *ut ot bcs *hhk `osajvhrh` tbct tbh grjubcs c$)jst ck okvcrockt kj. j' abrj)jsj)h cr)s Csj)h 'ush` ok sj)h shaohs, tbct os t9oah tbh kj. j' cr)sok rh$cth` grjus. hkah tbh hvo`hkah jokts tj tbh +c$)jko`s, bcvokg hvj$vh` 'rj) c sokg$h hvhkt, tbctgcvh rosh tj c thtrc$jo`. +thro$oty j' tro$jo`s bcs *hhk aj))hraoc$$y hx$joth` ok cko)c$s cs 9h$$ cs $ckts."ro$jo` jysthrs bcvh *hhk `hvh$jh` ck` bcvh c aj))hraocc$ c`vcktcgh jvhr tbhor `o$jo` ajukthrcrts."bh `o$jo`s gj tbrjugb c sc9kokg shcsjk, 9bhk tbhy crh uk$ctc*$h, *ut tbh tro$jo`s, *hacush j' tbhor sthro$oty `j kjt sc9k ck` crh c$ctc*$h tbh 9bj$h yhcr crjuk`. "j`cy aytjghktoa stu`ohs ok 'osbhs bcvh grc`ucth` 'rj) ajkvhktojkc$ =cryjtyh ckc$ysos tj bogb rhsj$utojkthabko&uhs suab cs -*ck`s j*tcokh` c'thr 8-#r`> okajrjrctojk, '$ujrjabrj)h stcokokg, rhstroatojkhkLy)h *ck`okg, ok sotu $jac$osctojk j' rhhtotovh 1% rj*hs ck` o))ukj'$ujrhsahkah. "bhsh stu`ohsbcvh `osa$jsh` ahrtcok uko&uh abcrcathrostoas j' 'osb shaohs, $o=h, hvj$utojk j' j$y$jo`y ok ahrtcok ghkus,suhrku)hrcry #-abrj)jsj)hs, kcturc$ tro$jo`s, c grhct $hvh$ j' j$y)jrbos) j' 1/ ku)*hr ck`)jrbj$jgy, c roab vcroc*o$oty j' )jrbj$jgoac$$y `o''hrhktocth` shx abrj)jsj)h systh)s, oka$u`okgso)$h ck` )u$to$h systh)s, jrogokcth` hotbhr *y abrj)jsj)h rhcrrckgh)hkts okvj$vokg tbh shxabrj)jsj)hs, jr h$sh *y bhthrjabrj)ctok c``otojkH`h$htojk. C1ck`c ht.c$.,3??<@ %$)ho`c-"j$h`jht.c$.,3??2@ hkjvck-9rogbt ht.c$.,3??2@ Acutj ht.c$.,3??2@ osckj ck` /Lju'-AjstcL,3??2@ 1oso-Ahrojkoht. c$.,3??2@ Nhkjaaboj ht.c$.3??2. Okvj$vh)hkt j' *jtb %" ck` GA roab sh&uhkahs bcs *hhk j*shrvh`.Ok ajktrcst tj jtbhr vhrth*rcth a$csshs, aytj$jgoac$$y `h)jkstrc*$h shx abrj)jsj)hs crh rcrh c)jkg 'osbhs."bh `h)jkstrctojk j' tbh abrj)jsj)c$ )j`h j' shx `hthr)okctojk voc ghkhtoa hxhro)hkts cs 9h$$ cs tbhc*shkah j' bhthrj)jrboa shx abrj)jsj)hs c''or) jhao$oo` 'osbhs cs c uko&uh grju c)jkg vhrth*rcthstbct crh hk`j9h` 9otb tbh )jst ro)otovh 'jr) j' shx abrj)jsj)hs. C7rosbkcc ck` hgh,3?2@ 1ck`c ht.c$.,3??. Ok )cky `o''hrhkt tcxc tbh hvj$utojkcry rjahss okvj$vh` ok tbh `o''hrhktoctojk j' c`vckah` shxabrj)jsj)hs os jut$okh` tbrjugb shx shao'oac$$y jrgckosh` rhhtotovh sh&uhkahs. Nosbhs rhrhshkt tbh sth)vhrth*rcth ajk`otojk ck` bcvh )coktcokh` shvhrc$ ghkh rhcrrckgh)hkts aj))jk tj )c))c$ock ghkj)hstbrjugbjut tbh 48yr j' `ovhrghkah 'rj) c aj))jk ckahstjr. "bh aytjghkhtoa ck` )j$hau$cr ghkhtoa`ctc j*tcokh` ok 'osbhs sj 'cr crh c rh)ok`hr j' tbos 'cat.G(1/"/0OAO" %1 >"%G(1(+O+5Aurrhkt c9crhkhss j' tbh jthktoc$ bcLcr`s j' j$$utckts ok tbh c&uctoa hkvorjk)hkt bcs sto)u$cth` )uabokthrhst ok tbh ush j' 'osbhs cs ok`oactjrs 'jr tbh )jkotjrokg j' hkvorjk)hktc$ acraokjghks., thrctjghks ck`)utcghks. "bos os )cok$y *hacush c&uctoa hkvorjk)hkts shrvh cs ajkvhkohkt rhjsotjrohs 'jr )ckBs *oj$jgoac$ ck` thabkj$jgoac$ 9csths.C 7rosbkcc ht.c$.,3?2F. (o`h)oj$jgoac$ okvhstogctojks bcvh *rjugbttj $ogbt c bogbhr okao`hkah j' tu)jurs ok 'osbhs 'rj) j$$uth` 9cthr systh)s aj)crh` 9otb tbho
 
ajukthrcrts 'rj) rh$ctovh$y kjk-j$$uth` 9cthrs. Abrj)jsj)c$ c*hrrctojks CA%, sosthr abrj)cto`hxabckghs ck` )oarjkua$ho crh tbrhh )cjr Aytjghkhtoa hk` jokts tbct ack *h ush` cs ok`oactjrs j' ck okvotrjH ok vovj )utcghkoa hxjsurh. cky okvhstogctjrs ok tbh cst bc` ctth)th` tj ush c&uctoa jrgckos)stj stu`y tbh a$cstjghkoa h''hats j' rc`octojk ck` abh)oac$s. +tu`ohs jk tbh a$cstjghkoa h''hats j' $j9 $hvh$9cthr*jrkh rc`ojkua$o`hs 9hrh acrroh` jut *y "sytsugokcC3?F. Ok jkh j' tbh 'oh$` stu`ohs uk`hrtc=hk tjhxc)okh abrj)jsj)h c*kjr)c$otohs ok c&uctoa jrgckos)s, Ijkg9h$$C3?F: ckc$ysh` )ca=hrc$ hggsaj$$hath` 'rj) tbh 1h9 jr= #ogbt. %k cvhrcgh j' jkh tbor` j' c$$ `ovosojk 'ogurhs sajrh` 'rj) hggsaj$$hath` ok tbos bogb$y j$$uth` crhc 9hrh c*kjr)c$, sbj9okg )osjrohkth` sok`$hs, abrj)jsj)hstoa=okhss, *rhc=cgh ck` $jss. "bh )cjr 'catjr tbct bcs ajk'juk`h` tbh rhsu$ts j' )jst a$cstjghkoa stu`ohs 9otb c&uctoa jrgckos)s os tbhabjoah j' shaohs ush` ok tbhsh hxhro)hkts. jst 'osbhs bcvh $crgh ku)*hrs j' s)c$$ abrj)jsj)hs)c=okg abrj)jsj)h *rhc=cgh stu`ohs cr`jus o' kjt o)rcatoac$. "bhsh rj*$h)s ack *h jvhraj)h *y tbhuto$osctojk j' c&uctoa shaohs 9otb s)c$$ ku)*hrs j' $crgh abrj)jsj)hs ck` tbh c`jtojk j' )j`hrkaytjghkhtoa )htbj`s j' )htcbcsh ckc$ysos. "brjugb tbh sh$hatojk j' ck ok vovj )j`h$ systh) crjcabusokg rhrhshktctovh shaohs 9otb gjj` =cryjtyhs ck` tbh uto$osctojk j' )htcbcsh abrj)jsj)h ck` +A(ckc$yshs, shksotovh sbjrt thr) thst systh)s tj `hthat 9cthr*jrkh ghkjtjxoa cghkts 9hrh `hvh$jh`.C7$oghr)ck ht.c$.,3?F8@ rhok ht.c$.,3?F2@ 7$oghr)ck,3?F?@ %$ok= ht.c$.,3?2@ 7rosbkcc,3?2@ 7rosbkccck` hgh,3?2<. 7rosbkccC3?2 hx$jrh` tbh jsso*o$otohs j' usokg 'osb shaohs cvco$c*$h ok tbos crt j' tbh ajuktry cs caytjghkhtoa )j`h$ ok vovj 'jr tbh `hthatojk j' jthktoc$ )utcghks. %aajr`okg$y < shaohs j' 'osb 9hrhsarhhkh` 'jr tbh sh$hatojk j' c suotc*$h =cryjtyh. /tbhr 'catjrs, suab cs hcsy )cokthkckah ok tbh$c*jrctjry, rh$ctovh$y s)c$$ soLh, c*o$oty tj 9otbstck` hxhro)hktc$ ajk`otojks, cvco$c*o$oty ok $crgh ku)*hrstbrjugbjut tbh yhcr ck` gjj` yoh$` j' c ku)*hr j' )htcbcshs 'rj) c 9o`h vcrohty j' tossuhs, 9hrh c$sjtc=hk oktj ajkso`hrctojk ok tbh sh$hatojk j' tbh thst shaohs. % `jsh rhsjksh h''hat 9cs 'juk` 9otb tbhrh'hrhkah )utcghk )otj)yaok A. A$cstjghkoa h''hats j' )htc$s suab cs g, +h ck` Ar ok tbh 'jr) j'  bhky$ )hraury cahtcth, sh$hkou) `ojxo`h ck` sj`ou) `oabrj)cth 'j$$j9okg ok`orhat Co.). okhatojks ck`ok`orhatC`ossj$vh` ok tbh c&ucrou) 9cthr 9hrh stu`oh`. j9 hvhr, tj *rokg tbos systh) tj c stck`cr`osh`thstokg rjtjaj$, )uab khh`s tj *h `jkh. +j)h j' tbh cshats khh`okg tj *h ajvhrh` crh C3 c )jrhaj)rhbhksovh sarhhkokg okvj$vokg c $crgh ku)*hr j' 'osb shaohs tj `hthat ck o`hc$ =cryjtyh, C< ah$$aya$h =okhtoas stu`ohs 'jr tbh tossuhs ajkahrkh` tj )c=h tbh abrj)jsj)c$ c*hrrctojk ckc$ysos )jrh)hckokg'u$, ck` C aj$$hatojk j' )jrh `ctc tj hstc*$osb hxjsurh to)h 'jr ok`orhat hxjsurhs. osbo ck`Grh9c$C3??8 acrroh` jut abrj)jsj)h c*hrrctojk ckc$ysos ok Abckkc ukatctus c'thr ok`orhat hxjsurhC `ossj$vh` ok c&ucrou) 9cthr ct c ajkahktrctojk $hvh$ h&uc$ tj tbct 'juk` ok `rcokcgh 'rj) cgroau$turc$'oh$`s tj ck jrgckjbjsbjrus okshatoao`h, `oab$jrjvjs. /kh vhrscto$h hk` jokt, tbh 'rh&uhkay j' ckcbcsh c*hrrctojks bcs *hhk ush` ok shvhrc$ $crgh )crokh csshss)hkts tj hvc$ucth ghkjtjxoaoty.Cjsh,3??4.#y )j`o'yokg tbh )htcbcsh )htbj`j$jgy tj oka$u`h okajrjrctojk j' #r`> 'jr t9j ah$$ aya$hs rojr tj)htcbcsh caau)u$ctojk, +A( ckc$ysos ack *h hr'jr)h`. cky )utcghkoa acraokjghks acush bogb $hvh$sj' +A(s ct `jshs tbct rj`uah $ott$h jr kj abrj)jsj)h *rhc=cgh. "bus +A( ckc$ysos 9cs ush`okarhcsokg$y cs c )jkotjr 'jr tbh rhshkah j' ghkjtjxoackts ok *jtb ok vovj ck` ok votrj stu`ohs. jst j' tbh okvhstogctojks ok vovj crh bc)hrh` *y ukrh$oc*$h thabko&uhs. 7$oghr)ck ,3?F? ,3?2 , `h)jkstrcth`tbh ush'u$khss j' >)*rc $o)o cs c )j`h$ ok vovj systh) 'jr *jtb A% ck` +A( ckc$ysos 'jr tbh `hthatojk j' )utcghks. vck `h 7hr=bj'' ck` vck `hr Gccg C3?28 bc` `osaussh` c 'h9 )j`o'oactojks, $o=h #r`>okajrjrctojk 'rj) c&uhjus sj$utojks, sbjrt okthrvc$ *ht9hhk rhcrctojk ck` stcokokg j' s$o`hs ck` jsttrhct)hkt 9otb A$ 'jr +A stcokokg ok 1jtbj*rckabous rcabj9o ok vovj. "bhsh o)rjvh)hkts rhsu$th` okc bogb$y rh$oc*$h +A rjah`urh ok 1jtbj*rckabous rcabj9o, 9otb c $j9 $hvh$ +A( 'rh&uhkay. Ok`uatojkj' +A(s ck` A% ok bch)jojhtoa tossuh j' c )crokh 'osb 'j$$j9okg ok vovj hxjsurh tj ghkjtjxoackts 9csrhjrth` *y c``ja= ht.c$.C3?2:. Ot sbju$` *h rh)h)*hrh` tbct #r`> okajrjrctojk os c$9cys $j9 ok vovj, *hacush j' $o)oth` utc=h ck` )htc*j$os) aj)crh` tj ok votrj ajk`otojks. 6ros*hrg ck` ck `hr GccgC3??< okvhstogcth` tbh ghkjtjxoaoty j' 9csth 9cthr 'rj) c 9bhct ck` ryh strc9 u$ )o$$ usokg+A(s ck` )oarjkua$ho.oarjkua$ho C1 csscys ok 'osb bcvh *hhk sbj9k tj *h ush'u$ ok vovj thabko&uhs 'jr ghkjtjxoaoty thstokg."bh rhvoh9 *y %$-+c*to ck` htac$'hC3??8 os ck hxah$$hkt jkh `orhath` tj cssost $c*jrctjrohs ok tbh`hvh$j)hkt j' 'osb ghkjtjxoaoty csscys 'jr 9cthr &uc$oty )jkotjrokg. % su))cry j' tbh vcrojus

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