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Family Planning

Family Planning



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Published by dexter

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Published by: dexter on Oct 22, 2008
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 Family Planning 
The concept of enhancing the quality of families w/c includes:Regulating & spacing childbirthHelping subfertile couples beget childrenCounseling parents and would-be parentsThe privilege and the obligation of the (married) couple exclusively to decide w/ love when andhow many children provided:
the motive is justified and the means are moral.
Involves personal decisions based on each individual’s background, experiences andsociocultural beliefs. It involves thorough planning to be certain that the method chosen isacceptable and can be used effectively.
Function of the Health Professional in Family Planning
To counsel, reassure, give information and allow an individual/couple to decide his/her/their course of action according to what he/she think is appropriate for them and in accordance to their own personal,societal, religious beliefs & values
Temporary conception control
Methods used to prevent conceptionMethods used to prevent ovulationMethods used to prevent implantation
Sterilization/ Permanent conception control
Tubal Occlusion / Bilateral Tubal LigationVasectomy or Vas Ligation
never advice a permanent method of planning
( The only method accepted by the catholic church)
Coitus interruptus
least effective method)
Oldest type of birth control practiced by man.The premature withdrawal of the penis before ejaculation during sexual intercourseReliability is low because sperms are emitted in varying quantities in the normal lubricating fluidsecreted throughout intercoursePsychological disadvantageNot accepted by the Catholic Church 
Coitus reservatus
Male does not reach orgasm and therefore no ejaculation occursRequires considerable control over the sexual urge 
Coitus interfemora – “ipit” (kaskas lang)
Rhythmic abstinence
Identification of the periods of fertility and the periods of sterility in the menstrual cycle of a womanand the restriction of sexual intercourse to the sterile periods or the time when the pregnancy is unlikely because the woman is biologically unprepared to conceive.Also known as
safe or infertile period
” technique and “natural birth control” or NFP because there isnothing artificial used to prevent conception.These methods are based on the ff. principles:The human ovum is susceptible to fertilization for approx. 18-24 hours after ovulation
The sperms deposited in the vagina are ordinarily capable of fertilizing the ovum for no morethan 72 hoursPresent methods of determining ovulation time are inexact and seldom sufficiently predictive (byat least 48 hours) so that in practice, it is necessary to avoid intercourse for a far longer period of time than 72 hours before ovulation and 24 hours after ovulation
Calendar method 
The use of mathematical calculations to predict the probable time of ovulation.
Ovulation most oftentakes place 14 days before the onset of the next menstruation
Ogino-knaus formula:
1.Determine the shortest and longest cycleex. Shortest cycle = 28 daysLongest cycle = 36 days2.If the cycle is irregular, subtract 18 from the shortest and 11 from the longestex. 28-18=10ex. 25-18=736-11=25 29-11=183. The difference between the shortest cycle and 18 determines the earliest time when ovulation occur.4. The difference between the longest cycle and 11 determines the last day when ovulation can occur 5. OVULATION CAN OCCUR ANYTIME IN BETWEEN.6. In a regular 28 day cycle, abstinence should be observed from day 9 to day 17. (count 5 days before theearliest ovulation and 3 days after the last day)
 Basal Body Temperature
This relies on slight changes (0.3 to 0.6ºC) in basal body temp. that may occur just before ovulationPre-ovulatory temperature is low because of high estrogen levelsPost-ovulatory temp. rise is due to high progesteroneThe temperature is taken every morning at the same time with the same thermometer just before arisingand after at least 4-6 hours of continuous sleep.3 days of elevation indicate temperature change is due to ovulationAbstinence should be observed 5 days before and 3 days after temperature rise.
Phases of Wetness/Dryness
1.Wet menstruation2.Dry – basic infertile pattern-sequence of dry days (or days of unchanging mucus) indicating low level of estrogen and presentinfertility-duration is invariable, could be days, weeks,months or zero (if cycle is short)3.Wet – days of possible fertilityA particular type of cervical mucus felt by the woman at the vaginal opening isa signal of ovulationResearch shows this type of mucusappears necessary for conception.Without the mucus, sperm transport isimpeded.This type of mucus is described as “
clear and transluscent and about the consistencyof raw egg white.”
-changing mucus; non-slippery at first later becoming slippery
-peak: last day of slippery mucus
-days 1-3 after the peak are part of fertile period
4.Dry – infertile days
day 4 after the peak till the end of the cycle
-ends about 2 weeks after the peak 
 Lactational Amenorrhea Method 
LAM is based on scientific evidence that a woman is not fertile and unlikely to become pregnant duringfull lactation or exclusive breastfeeding. Full lactation describes breastfeeding when no regular supplemental feeding of any type is given (not even water) and the infant is feeding both day and nightwith little separation from the mother.LAM provides maximum protection as long as:Menstruation has not resumed andBottle feeds or regular food supplements are not introduced andBaby is less than 6 months of age.
 Symptothermal method 
combination of BBT & cervical. Best method )
Signs of Ovulation:MitlelschmerzSpinbarkheitChanges in vaginal mucusGoodells signMood changesBreast tendernessIncreased levels of progesteroneChange in basal body temp.
– lactation amenorrheal method – hormone that inhibits ovulation is
breast feeding- menstruation will come out4 – 6 monthsbottle fed 2 3 monthsdisadvantage of lam – might get pregnant

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