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Concepts of Stress

Concepts of Stress

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Published by dexter

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Published by: dexter on Oct 22, 2008
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01/10/2013

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Concepts of Stress
Definition of terms:
Stress
A disruptive condition that occurs in response to adverse influences from the internal or external environments
A condition in which the person responds to changes in the normal balanced state
Stressors
A stimulus or situation that causes stress.
Classification of StressorsGeneral Classification1.Internal Stressor 
Originate within the person
2.External Stressor 
Originate outside the individual
3.Developmental Stressor 
Occurs at a predictable time throughout life
4.Situational Stresso
Unpredictable may occur any time during life
Can Be Positive or Negative
According to Location
1.
Physical
e.g. (Cold,Heat, chemical agents)
2.
Physiologic
e.g. (pain and Fatigue)
3.
Psychosocial
e.g. (Failing exams and losing a job)
 
According to involved persons1.Day to day stressors2.Major complex occurrences involving large groups3.Less frequent stressors involving few groupsAccording to Duration1.Acute time limited stresso2.Stressor sequence3.Chronic intermittent stresso4.Chronic Enduring Stressor 
Stress as Stimulus
Stress is defined as a stimulus, life event, or a set of circumstances that arousesphysiologic and psychologic reactions that may increase the individuals vulnerability toillness
Adolph Meyer 
Relating life response to illness
Holmes and Rahe
Life change units
A numerical scale ranking stressful life events and the amount of distress theycause( 43 life changes)
Stress as a Response
Hans Selye
defined stress as the nonspecific response of the body to any demandmade upon it
 
Schafer 
defined stress as the arousal of mind and body in response to demands madeupon them
Generalized Adaptation Syndrome (GAS or Stress syndrome)
Describes stress as wear and tear on the body occurring regardless of whether thestressor is positive or negative
Localized Adaptation Syndrome (LAS)
Inflammatory and repair processes that occur in the at the local site of tissue injury 
Phases of GAS/LASA.Alarm reaction
2 phases1.Shock Phase
SNS and Endocrine system react to stress(fight or flight response)2.Countershock Phase
Reversal of changes brought by Shock phase
B.Stage of Resistance
1.Adaptive responses that attempt to limit the damage of stress
C.Stage of exhaustion
1.
Physiologic and psychological resources are depleted and immunesystem becomes depressed
Stress as a Transaction

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