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Implementation Of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Using VHDL

Implementation Of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Using VHDL

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Published by Cutie
Project report on Implementation Of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Using VHDL
Project report on Implementation Of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Using VHDL

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Published by: Cutie on Dec 04, 2011
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01/04/2015

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CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION1.1 FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM
A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an efficient algorithm to compute the DiscreteFourier Transform (DFT) and its inverse. There are many distinct FFT algorithmsinvolving a wide range of mathematics, from simple complex-number arithmetic to grouptheory and number theory. The fast Fourier Transform is a highly efficient procedure for computing the DFT of a finite series and requires less number of computations than thatof direct evaluation of DFT. It reduces the computations by taking advantage of the factthat the calculation of the coefficients of the DFT can be carried out iteratively. Due tothis, FFT computation technique is used in digital spectral analysis, filter simulation,autocorrelation and pattern recognition.The FFT is based on decomposition and breaking the transform into smaller transforms and combining them to get the total transform. FFT reduces the computationtime required to compute a discrete Fourier transform and improves the performance by afactor of 100 or more over direct evaluation of the DFT.A DFT decomposes a sequence of values into components of differentfrequencies. This operation is useful in many fields but computing it directly from thedefinition is often too slow to be practical. An FFT is a way to compute the same resultmore quickly: computing a DFT of 
 N 
points in the obvious way, using the definition,takes O( N
2
) arithmetical operations, while an FFT can compute the same result in onlyO(
 N 
log
 N 
) operations.The difference in speed can be substantial, especially for long data sets where
 N 
may be in the thousands or millions—in practice, the computation time can be reduced by
1
 
several orders of magnitude in such cases, and the improvement is roughly proportionalto
 N 
/log (
 N 
). This huge improvement made many DFT-based algorithms practical. FFT’sare of great importance to a wide variety of applications, from digital signal processingand solving partial differential equations to algorithms for quick multiplication of largeintegers.The most well known FFT algorithms depend upon the factorization of 
 N 
, butthere are FFT with O (
 N 
log
 N 
) complexity for all
 N 
, even for prime
 N 
. Many FFTalgorithms only depend on the fact that is an
 N 
th primitive root of unity, and thus can beapplied to analogous transforms over any finite field, such as number-theoretictransforms.The Fast Fourier Transform algorithm exploit the two basic properties of thetwiddle factor - the symmetry property and periodicity property which reduces thenumber of complex multiplications required to perform DFT.FFT algorithms are based on the fundamental principle of decomposing thecomputation of discrete Fourier Transform of a sequence of length N into successivelysmaller discrete Fourier transforms. There are basically two classes of FFT algorithms.A) Decimation In Time (DIT) algorithmB) Decimation In Frequency (DIF) algorithm.In decimation-in-time, the sequence for which we need the DFT is successivelydivided into smaller sequences and the DFTs of these subsequences are combined in acertain pattern to obtain the required DFT of the entire sequence. In the decimation-in-frequency approach, the frequency samples of the DFT are decomposed into smaller andsmaller subsequences in a similar manner.The number of complex multiplication and addition operations required by thesimple forms both the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) is of order 
 N 
2
as there are
 N 
data points to calculate, each of whichrequires
 N 
complex arithmetic operations.
2
 
The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is defined by the formula:
;210)()(
n  j N nen x K  X 
Π==
Where K is an integer ranging from 0 to
 N 
− 1.The algorithmic complexity of DFT will O(
 N 
2) and hence is not a very efficientmethod. If we can't do any better than this then the DFT will not be very useful for themajority of practical DSP application. However, there are a number of different 'FastFourier Transform' (FFT) algorithms that enable the calculation the Fourier transform of a signal much faster than a DFT. As the name suggests, FFTs are algorithms for quick calculation of discrete Fourier transform of a data vector. The FFT is a DFT algorithmwhich reduces the number of computations needed for 
 N 
 points from O(
 N 2
) to O(
 N 
log
 N 
) where log is the base-2 logarithm. If the function to be transformed is notharmonically related to the sampling frequency, the response of an FFT looks like a‘sinc’ function (sin
 x
) /
 x.
The Radix-2 DIT algorithm rearranges the DFT of the function
 xn
into two parts:a sum over the even-numbered indices
n
= 2
m
and a sum over the odd-numbered indices
n
= 2
m
+ 1:
3

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hi i am unable to find the control_main.vhd file in the code... please help me..
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hello i could not find the control_main.vhd in the design file.... please help me...
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i can not find control_main component code!
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HI i would like to know how to get the work.butter_lib file
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