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Automata Modelling

# Automata Modelling

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07/02/2014

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Automata and CLM Modelling with DistributedComputing
The Constellation ProjectDecember 4, 2011
Abstract
To be ﬁlled in
1 Introduction
An automata is an abstract entity, represented by a discreet “cell”
C
of a contin-uous domain
D
, characterized by a state vector
, which is subject to modiﬁ-cation, when acted on by a ﬁnite set of deﬁnitive rules
R
. The rules are usuallycomposed from the states of the neighboring cells of domain. In general
R
isa predeﬁned set, and not subject to modiﬁcation. The notion of cells is oftenreﬂected in the term Cellular Automata (CA). The new states are created byaccepting a particular so called input
I
, which causes the system to follow a par-ticular corresponding rule
r
∈ R
. The choice of rule is governed by a particularfunction.In contrast, there exists, Coupled Map Lattices (CML), where each cell
C
may have inﬁnite number of states. The new states are created with advancingtime from the previous states of the cell and its neighbors via a set of functions.Both CA and CML models the nature with the philosophy of arriving atcomplexity while starting with simple models. The cells (since in span they aremuch smaller than the system) may be treated as microscopic elements, which,when acting together, generates macroscopic complexity. Given the fact, that ina modeling scenario, the computers have limited power, and can handle objectsof limited span, it may be of use to accept a modeling strategy which is basedon the collective behavior of multiple microscopic agents.Distributed computing is based on the process of starting with a set
of cells, each characterized by a corresponding start parameter vector
v
∈ V
, andﬁnding the ﬁnal state of the parameter. In the present paper we discuss howsuch distributed computing systems may be exploited for CA or CML basedmodeling.1

2 Coupled Map Lattice - Inﬁnite System
In general, a modeling strategy is simply based on ﬁrst, splitting the domainin a number of ﬁnite discreet “grid cells”, second, setting initial and/or otherboundary conditions, and ﬁnally using known functions, with at least one ar-gument corresponding to the time advanced by one stepsize-unit on the cellstate-vectors to determine the new state.
2.1 Notations
We ﬁrst deﬁne a few necessary mathematical notations.
2.1.1 Cell, Domain, State vectorDomain
A domain is the set of values that a physical variable may take, onwhich analysis is performed. Domains may be continuous within certain limits,where the variables may take any and all possible values between the limits. Inthis case, the size of the set is inﬁnite. A domain may be discreet, where thevariable may take only certain discreet values, within certain limits. A domain isalways deﬁned with it’s limits. An inﬁnite domain may have positive or negativeinﬁnity (
) as it’s limit.Domains may be topologically continuous, which contains all possible values,and topologically discontinuous, which does not contain all possible values. Atopologically continuous domain is 1-packed.
Cell
However, a computer has only ﬁnite computation capacity. Hence it cannot handle an inﬁnite set. A transformation is therefore needed to convert theinﬁnite set to ﬁnite.Let there be an topologically continuous, continuous domain, bounded withinlimits
[
a,b
]
(called an interval between
a
and
b
),
c
[
a,b
]
,
i,
|
c
=
a
+
b
ai,i
N
(2.1)Here
is a constant for the domain. For a 1-packed continuous domain,
=
. The size of this domain (if size
→ ∞
, then packing
1) is inﬁnite,hence the property of being 1-packed is satisﬁed.This situation is approximated in a computer, by approximating
with
, where
→ ∞
. This results in a continuous domain with packing
1
,when considering all possible values within interval
[
a,b
]
. However, we force theproperty of being 1-packed. That is, we consider all the values, except those oneswhich
c
assumes under the above approximation as “permited” values. Then
c
assumes all the permitted values, and becomes 1-packed. This domain is nomore continuous, as certain values are forced out of the interval. However it isstill topologically continuous. Such a domain is considered a discreet domain.Notice, it is possible to create intervals from eq. 2.1, in forms of
[
c
(
i
)
,c
(
i
+1)]
.Such intervals are subintervals of
[
a,b
]
. For appropriate
k
=
1
, the state2

vector may be taken to be constant throughout the interval. These subintervalsare known as cells.
k
may be taken as a characteristic measure of the cell.A cell is still a set. However, the state vector of any element of the set is aconstant, and is known as the cell state vector.
State Vector
The state vector is a set
of all scalar parameters character-izing a cell, representated in form of a vector. The characterization may not beunique, but it must be distinguishable.
Characterization and Distiguishability
Let
be the state vector of cell
C
. We write,
s
C
=
. The following holds for any
C
1
,
C
2
:
[
s
C
1
=
s
C
2
]
[
C
1
C
2
]
(2.2)The symbol
indicates indistingusibility.
is said to characterize
C
. Twostructures
1
and
2
is said to be indistingushable if and only if the results of any operator on these two cells are the same.Given
i
,
i
, and
C
i
, such that
s
C
i
=
i
, and
i
∈ V
i
⇒ V
i
s
C
i
, assume thefollowing holds:
1
=
2
=
(
i
)
1
=
2
G
=
G
(
i
)
(2.3)Then
C
is called
G
-distinguishable, and indistiguishable w.r.t.
2.1.2 Neighborhood, Flux and CouplingPacking
The cells in any interval are usually
1
-packed. Assume, for a giveninterval, and a given
k
, it is possible to exist for maximal
n
cells, and thereexists
m
cells. Such collection of cells will be called
k
-packed, where
k
=
mn
(2.4)
Distance
The distance between two cells is the number of cells that a straightline, drawn between the said two cells, touch or intersects, excluding the cell atthe beginning of the line.
Neighborhood
The set of all cell, which are at most a distance
d
away forma given cell, is called the
d
-neighborhood of the given cell. The
0
-neighborhoodof a cell is the cell itself.If the neighboorhood can be expressed as a
m
-dimensional tensor, then it iscalled an
m
-dimensional neighborhood, or it has
m
-dimensions. More than one
m
-dimensional neightborhood can be constructed from an
n
-dimensional neigh-borhood, where
n > m
. Then these
m
-dimensional neighborhoods are termed3