Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
4Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Abstraction

Abstraction

Ratings: (0)|Views: 116 |Likes:
Published by Paul Muljadi
Abstraction book
Abstraction book

More info:

Published by: Paul Muljadi on Dec 05, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/03/2014

pdf

text

original

 
PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See http://code.pediapress.com/ for more information.PDF generated at: Sun, 04 Dec 2011 23:53:30 UTC
Abstraction
 
Contents
Articles
Main article
1
Abstraction1
Supporting articles
7
Abstract art7Abstraction (computer science)14Abstraction (mathematics)21Abstract structure22Abstract (summary)23Abstract interpretation25Abstract object29Hypostatic abstraction31Leaky abstraction32Conceptual model34Object of the mind38Ontology41Platonic realism46
References
Article Sources and Contributors49Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors51
Article Licenses
License52
 
1
Main article
Abstraction
Abstraction
is a process by which higher concepts are derived from the usage and classification of literal ("real" or"concrete") concepts, first principles, or other methods. An "abstraction" (noun) is a concept that acts as asuper-categorical noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any related concepts as a
group, field,
or
category
.Abstractions may be formed by reducing the information content of a concept or an observable phenomenon,typically to retain only information which is relevant for a particular purpose. For example, abstracting a leathersoccer ball to the more general idea of a ball retains only the information on general ball attributes and behavior,eliminating the other characteristics of that particular ball.
Origins
The first symbols of abstract thinking in humans can be traced to fossils dating between 50,000 and 100,000 yearsago in Africa.
[1]
 
[2]
However, language itself, whether spoken or written, involves abstract thinking.
Thought process
In philosophical terminology,
abstraction
is the thought process wherein ideas
[3]
are distanced from objects.Abstraction uses a strategy of simplification, wherein formerly concrete details are left ambiguous, vague, orundefined; thus effective communication about things in the abstract requires an intuitive or common experiencebetween the communicator and the communication recipient. This is true for all verbal/abstract communication.
Cat on Mat
(picture 1)
For example, many different things can be red. Likewise, many things sit onsurfaces (as in
 picture 1
, to the right). The property of 
redness
and the relation
sitting-on
are therefore abstractions of those objects. Specifically, the conceptualdiagram
graph 1
identifies only three boxes, two ellipses, and four arrows (andtheir five labels), whereas the
 picture 1
shows much more pictorial detail, with thescores of implied relationships as implicit in the picture rather than with the nineexplicit details in the graph.
Graph 1
details some explicit relationships between the objects of the diagram. Forexample the arrow between the
agent 
and
CAT:Elsie
depicts an example of an
is-a
relationship, as does the arrowbetween the
location
and the
 MAT 
. The arrows between the gerund
SITTING
and the nouns
agent 
and
location
express the diagram's basic relationship;
"agent is SITTING on location" 
;
 Elsie
is an instance of 
CAT 
.
Conceptual graph for A Cat sitting on the Mat
(graph 1)
Although the description
sitting-on
(graph 1) is moreabstract than the graphic image of a cat sitting on a mat(picture 1), the delineation of abstract things fromconcrete things is somewhat ambiguous; this ambiguityor vagueness is characteristic of abstraction. Thussomething as simple as a newspaper might be specifiedto six levels, as in Douglas Hofstadter's illustration of that ambiguity, with a progression from abstract to concrete in
Gödel, Escher, Bach
(1979):(1) a publication

Activity (4)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
syedfaisalarif liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->