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Eukaryotes

Eukaryotes

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Published by: Savannah Simone Petrachenko on Dec 05, 2011
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05/04/2012

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Eukaryotes
The Endosymbiont Theory
 
(Lynn Margulis, 1981)
 
 
Provides an explanation for the evolution of the mitochondrion andchloroplast (from symbiotically living bacteria)
 
Does not explain the evolution of other organelles, structures, andprocesses
Diversity of Eukaryotes
 
Eukaryotes that are neither plants, animals, or fungi are calledprotists, or microbial eukaryotes (though not all are microbial).
 
They do not constitute a clade, they are paraphyletic.
 
Phylogeny of microbial eukaryotes is the subject of much research.Electron microscopy and gene sequencing are revealing newinformation.
 
Most eukaryotes can be divided into five groups:
o
 
Chromalveolates
o
 
Plantae
o
 
Excavates
o
 
Rhizaria
o
 
Unikonts
 
Endosymbiosis
 
Endosymbiosis
: in which one organism lives inside another (iscommon in microbial eukaryotes)
 
Dinoflagellates are common endosymbionts in animals and othermicrobial eukaryotes; some are photosynthetic. Somedinoflagellates live as endosymbionts in corals.
Evolution of Eukaryotes
 
Eukaryotic cells arose as the environment was changingdramatically
from anaerobic to aerobic.
 
Events that occurred in the evolution of eukaryote cells are stillconjectural.
 
The main events:
o
 
Origin of a flexible cell surface
o
 
Origin of a cytoskeleton
o
 
Origin of a nuclear envelope
o
 
Appearance of digestive vesicles or vacuoles
o
 
Endosymbiotic acquisition of some organelles
 
Flexible cell surface: Prokaryotic cell wall was lost; cells can growlarger.
 
As cell size increases surface area-to-volume ratio decreases, butwith a flexible surface, infolding can occur, creating more surfacearea.
 
A cytoskeleton provided cell support, allowed cells to change shape,and move materials around the cell, including daughterchromosomes.
 
In some cells microtubules gave rise to flagella.
 
The nuclear envelope may have developed from the plasmamembrane.
 
The DNA of a prokaryote is attached to the plasma membrane;infolding of the membrane could have been the first step indevelopment of the nucleus.
 
 
The next step was probably
 phagocytosis
 
the ability to engulf anddigest other cells.
 
The first true eukaryotes had a cytoskeleton and nuclear envelope;they probably had ER,Golgi apparatus, andperhaps flagella
 
Cyanobacteria wereproducing oxygen; atsome point, someEukarya incorporatedproteobacteria thatevolved intomitochondria
theendosymbiotic theory.
 
The function of mitochondria initiallymight have been todetoxify O
2
byreducing it to water.Later this becameassociated with ATPproduction.
 
Some eukaryotesincorporated aprokaryote related to
today’s cyanoba
cteria,which developed intochloroplasts.
 
Evolution of chloroplasts probablyoccurred in a series of endosymbiotic eventsEvidence comes fromnucleic acidsequencing andelectron microscopy.

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