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Nutrient Exchange and Delivery (Part 2)

Nutrient Exchange and Delivery (Part 2)

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Nutrient Exchange & Delivery (part 3)

Challenges in Water
• • [O2] low (10mL per liter, cold water = 1%) [O2] decreases with increased temperature [O2] activity of organism

increasing temperature

With Movement to Land
• • Increased O2 availability (atmosphere = 20% oxygen) Diffusion rate 300,000x faster than in water

Challenge: Limiting Water Loss, Maintaining Gas Exchange
• Water loss is a major challenge in terrestrial environments ○ Needed for cell/membrane function ○ O2 must be dissolve
Nutrient Exchange & Delivery (part 3)

Challenges in Water
• • [O2] low (10mL per liter, cold water = 1%) [O2] decreases with increased temperature [O2] activity of organism

increasing temperature

With Movement to Land
• • Increased O2 availability (atmosphere = 20% oxygen) Diffusion rate 300,000x faster than in water

Challenge: Limiting Water Loss, Maintaining Gas Exchange
• Water loss is a major challenge in terrestrial environments ○ Needed for cell/membrane function ○ O2 must be dissolve

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Published by: Savannah Simone Petrachenko on Dec 05, 2011
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11/29/2013

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Nutrient Exchange & Delivery (part 3)
Challenges in Water
 
[O
2
] low (10mL per liter, cold water = 1%)
 
[O
2
] decreases with increased temperature
With Movement to Land
 
Increased O2 availability (atmosphere = 20% oxygen)
 
Diffusion rate 300,000x faster than in water
Challenge: Limiting Water Loss, Maintaining Gas Exchange
 
Water loss is a major challenge in terrestrial environments
o
 
Needed for cell/membrane function
o
 
O2 must be dissolved to be taken up
 
Solution to water loss challenge?
o
 
Make outer surface impermeable to water
 
New challenge created?
o
 
Gas exchange prevented as well
increasing temperatureactivity of organism[O
2
]
 
 
Solution to gas exchange challenge?
o
 
Punch holes in the impermeable surface
o
 
Controls water loss, but allows gas exchange
Challenge: Minimize Diffusion Distance
 
One solution
large internal surface area, allowing maximal direct
contact of cells with “inside air” 
 
o
 
i.e. plant leaf structure, insect “tracheal” system
 
 
Inefficient delivery of O
2
(insects) orCO
2
(plants), but still very effective
o
 
In fact: insect size is limitedby the tracheal system(Surface Area:Volume ratioproblem)
Other ways of allowing for increase in terrestrialorganism size?
 
 
Force air through the organism (pump), exposing all cells to air
o
 
Problem with water loss again
 
Extract O
2
from gas and deliver quickly to areas in need
o
 
Pump O
2
-filled fluid around
Challenge: Minimize Diffusion Distance
More Complex Solution
 
Lungs
o
 
Blind-ended gas exchangers (
usually 
)
o
 
Exchange of air by “tidal breathing” (in, out) (
usually 
)
o
 
Consists of:
 
Trachea
, branching into
 
Smaller
Bronchi
 
 
Smaller
Bronchioles
 
 
Terminating in
Alveoli
 
 
300,00 with Surface Area = 70m
2
 

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