Arab kinfolks have been divided according to lineage into three groups-
&he ancient Arabs, of whose history little is known, and of whom were Ad, &ham/d, &asam, 0adis, %mla+, and others.
1ho originated from the progeny of 2arub bin 2ash3ub bin 4ahtan. &hey were also called 4ahtanian Arabs.
1ho originated from the progeny of shmael. &hey were also called Adnanian Arabs. &he pure Arabs 5 the people of 4ahtan 5 originally lived in 2emen and comprised many tribes, two of which were very famous-
- &he most famous of whose septs were 6aid Al$0amhur, 4udaa and (akasic.
- &he most famous of whose septs were 7amdan, Anmar, &ai!, Mudhhi3, 8inda, "akhm, 0udham, A9d, Aws, 8ha9ra3 and the descendants of 0afna : the kings of old (yria. 8ahlan septs emigrated from 2emen to dwell in the different parts of the Arabian Peninsula prior to the )reat ;lood <
of Ma!rib Dam=, due to the failure of trade under the 'oman pressure and domain on both sea and land trade routes following 'oman occupation of %gypt and (yria. >aturally enough, the competition between 8ahlan and 7imyar led to the evacuation of the first and the settlement of the second in 2emen. &he emigrating septs of 8ahlan can be divided into four groups-
1ho, under the leadership of mran bin Amr Mu9ai+b?!, wandered in 2emen, sent pioneers and finally headed northwards. Details of their emigration can be summed up as follows- &halabah bin Amr left his tribe Al$A9d for 7i3a9 and dwelt between &halabiyah and Dhi 4ar. 1hen he gained strength, he headed for Madinah where he stayed. *f his seed are Aws and 8ha9ra3, sons of 7aritha bin &halabah. 7aritha bin Amr, known as 8hu9aa, wandered with his folks in 7i3a9 until they came to Mar A9$6ahran. "ater, they con+uered the 7aram, and settled in Makkah after having driven away its people, the tribe of 0urhum. mran bin Amr and his folks went to *man where they established the tribe of A9d whose children inhabited &ihama and were known as A9d$of$(hanu!a. 0afna bin Amr and his family, headed for (yria where he settled and initiated the kingdom of )hassan who was so named after a spring of water, in 7i3a9, where they stopped on their way to (yria.
Lakhm and Judham:
*f whom was >asr bin 'abia, father of Manadhira, 8ings of 7eerah.
1ho also emigrated northwards to settle by the so$ called A3a and (alma Mountains which were conse+uently named as &ai! Mountains.