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Analysis of Pipe Networks

Analysis of Pipe Networks

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Published by Ahmad Sana

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Published by: Ahmad Sana on Dec 05, 2011
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1
Analysis of Pipe Networks
Applications
: Water supply system, Pressure sewerage system, Water treatment plant
Theory:
1.
 
Continuity equation
2211
 A A
 2.
 
Energy equation
 L p
hg p zhg p z
22
22222111
    
 
g D L f h
 L
2
2
 Friction factor
is a function of Reynolds number (
 R
 N 
) and relative roughness (
D
s
 / 
). It can be found from Moody’s diagram or Colebrook 
equation:
    
 f  R D f 
 N s
51.27.3 / log21
 Jain's approximation :
    
9.0
74.57.3 / log21
 N s
 R D f 
 Table 1. Equivalent sand roughness,
s
in new pipes, (Moody, 1944)
MaterialEquivalent sand roughness,
s
(mm)
Riveted steel 0.9-9.0Concrete 0.3-3.0Ductile and cast iron 0.26Galvanized iron 0.15Asphalt-dipped ductile/cast iron 0.12Commercial steel or wrought iron 0.046Copper or brass tubing 0.0015Glass, plastic (PVC)
0
 
Pdatum
1
 
2
 
g
2
21
 
  
1
 p
 
1
 z
 
2
 z
 
  
2
 p
 
g
2
22
 
 p
h
 Energy lineHydraulic grade line
 
2
Example:
Water from a treatment plant is pumped into a distribution system at a rateof 4.38 m
3
 /s, a pressure of 480kPa, and a temperature of 20
o
C. The diameter of thepipe is 750mm and is made of ductile iron.(a)
 
Calculate the friction factor by Colebrook equation(b)
 
Estimate the pressure 200m downstream of the treatment plant if the pipelineremains horizontal.Solution:
016.0
 f 
 
270
2
 p
kPa
Designing a pipe for a given flowrate and head loss
1.
 
Assume
 f 
 2.
 
Calculate diameter from rearranged Darcy-Weisbach equation:
5 / 122
8
    
gh LQ D
 L
 
 3.
 
Calculate Reynolds number,
 
VD R
 N 
 4.
 
Calculate relative roughness,
 D
s
 / 
 5.
 
Use
 R
 N 
and
s
 /D
to calculate
 f 
from Colebrook equation.6.
 
Using new value of 
 f 
repeat the procedure until new
 f 
agrees with the old one.
Example
: A galvanized iron service pipe from a water main is required to deliver200 L/s during a fire. If the length of the service pipe is 35m and the head loss in thepipe is not to exceed 50m, calculate the minimum pipe diameter that can be used.Solution: D= 136 mm
Three-reservoir problem
Unknowns:
321
,,
 Equations: One continuity and two energy equations
ACBz
A
 z
C
 z
B
 
111
,,
D L
 
222
,,
D L
 
333
,,
D L
 datum
 
3
Other friction formulas:Hazen-Williams formula (SI units)
54.063.0
85.0
S R
 H 
 
Manning’s formula (SI units)
 
2 / 13 / 2
1
S Rn
 Table 2. Pipe roughness coefficientsPipe material
 H 
n
Ductile and cast iron:New, unlinedOld, unlinedCement lined and seal coated130801200.013-0.013Steel:Welded and seamlessRiveted120110-0.015Concrete 110 0.015Vitrified clay - 0.013Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) - 0.009The head loss can be expressed as:
 x L
KQh
 
Manning’s formula:
2
 x
Hazen-Williams formula:
85.1
 x
 Darcy-Weisbach equation:
75.1
 x
(smooth pipe) to
2
 x
(rough pipe)
Design of water distribution system
A municipal water distribution system is used to deliver water to the consumer.Water is withdrawn from along the pipes in a pipe network system, for computationalpurposes all demands on the system are assumed to occur at the junction nodes.Pressure is the main concern in a water distribution system. At no time should thewater pressure in the system be so low that contaminated groundwater could enter thesystem at points of leakage.The total water demand at each node is estimated from residential, industrial andcommercial water demands at that node. The fire flow is added to account foremergency water demand.

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