IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON EDUCATION, VOL. 44, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2001 87
Interactive Object-Oriented Simulation of Interconnected Power Systems Using SIMULINK
Eric Allen, Niels LaWhite, Yong Yoon, Jeffrey Chapman, and Marija Ilic´
, Fellow, IEEE
Anobject-orientedpowersystemsimulationenviron-ment is constructed using the SIMULINK dynamic system mod-eling software. The environment is well suited to educational pur-poses, because the user interface is interactive and intuitive with agraphical, object-oriented model representation. For small systemstudies, a model is constructed in block diagram form with oneblock for each system component. For large scale simulations, thedynamics of portions of the network can be combined into collec-tive blocks, with parameters managed as data arrays accessed in-directlyusingstringmnemonics.Theadvancednumericalcapabil-ities built into SIMULINK provide an excellent simulation enginefor the nonlinear models. Off-line analysis is available through theextensive capabilities of the MATLAB environment.
Block diagram form, dynamic system modelingsoftware, large scale simulation, MATLAB, nonlinear models, ob- ject-oriented modeling, off-line analysis, SIMULINK.
HEUSEofcomputersimulationtoolsisessentialinpowersystem studies. Software tools are widely used by util-ities for transient event simulations, power flow studies, sta-bility analysis, and operational planning. Most of the commer-cially available software packages are, however, designed towork with large power system models. The use of such tools isoftencumbersomeandnotwellsuitedtothesmallpowersystemstudiesusedforeducationalpurposes.Thispaperpresentsanewpowersystemsimulationtoolthatusesaninteractive,objectori-ented interface in the
 modeling environment.SIMULINK is a window oriented dynamics modelingpackage built on top of the MATLAB numerical workspace.The MATLAB environment has also been used to develop anal-ysis tools for small scale power system studies . However,the SIMULINK environment has the advantage that modelsare entered as block diagrams with an intuitive graphicalinterface. Model parameters are entered in menus and can bechanged interactively during a simulation. Simulation resultscan be viewed during the simulation and then exported to theMATLAB workspace for subsequent off-line analysis. Whilethe simulation is not
, the immediate feedback of theinteractive simulation environment provides the user with far
Manuscript received June 26, 1995; revised June 2, 2000.E. Allen is with Transmission Planning, New York ISO, Schenectady, NY12303 USA.N. LaWhite, Y. Yoon and M. Ilic´are with the Energy Laboratory, Mass-achusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA (e-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com).J. Chapman is with ABB Energy Information Systems, Santa Clara, CA95050 USA.Publisher Item Identifier S 0018-9359(01)01256-0.Fig. 1. A SIMULINK-based schematic of a two-bus system.
more intuition about simple system dynamics than batch-modesimulations.The SIMULINK modeling environment consists of a libraryof basic building blocks, which can be combined to form a dy-namicmodel.Groupsofblockscanbecombinedintosinglecus-tomized blocks to form highly specialized modeling constructs.The modeling environment described in this paper consists of alibrary of customized blocks for power system components thatare easily connected to form a power system model. Models areconstructedinblock-diagramform,withaseparateblock,orob- ject, used for each generator, load, and transmission line in thesimulatedsystem.Theconnectionsbetweenblocksinthemodelreflect a phasor representation of voltage and current, and theconnections are structured so that Kirchhoff’s voltage and cur-rent laws are satisfied. The simulation models only one phaseof a three-phase system, so the simulated dynamics reflect thesystem dynamics only under balanced conditions. The softwarecan be developed to simulate unbalanced conditions based onthe modeling method presented in .Fig. 1 shows a simple two-bus power network modeled inSIMULINK. Apparent in the model are the basic elements of the system: a generator, transmission line, and load. The gener-ator and load blocks are single input, single output blocks witha voltage output given a current input. The transmission lineblock has two inputs and two outputs, which connect the gen-erator to the load by outputting current given the voltage input.With this connection methodology, the structure of the network is apparent in the block diagram representation of the systemmodel. For small power systems, the block diagram can be readlike a network diagram, with each connection consisting of avoltage–current pair.This intuitive interface makes it very simple to create andmodifysimulationmodelsforsmallpowernetworks.Asthetyp-ical learning time for the SIMULINK graphical interface is onthe order of a day, the simulation tools are well suited to edu-cational use. The numerical simulations shown in this paper aretypical results of homework exercises and course term-projectsdone by a first-year graduate student at MIT.
0018–9359/01$10.00 © 2001 IEEE
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