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Speed Observer System for Advanced Sensor Less Control of IM

Speed Observer System for Advanced Sensor Less Control of IM

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Published by: sajs201 on Oct 23, 2008
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Speed Observer System for Advanced SensorlessControl of Induction Motor
Haithem Abu-Rub
 , Member, IEEE 
, Jaroslaw Guzinski, Zbigniew Krzeminski, andHamid A. Toliyat
 , Senior Member, IEEE 
This paper presents a sensorless control system forinduction motors, which is realized on a fixed-point digital signalprocessor (DSP) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Anobserversystemhasbeendevelopedforestimationofspeedandtheother state variables. The proposed observer system is verified fordifferent conditions of motor operation. Experimental results forthe control system fed by voltage source inverter controlled usingpredictive current controller are presented.
 Index Terms—
DSP, FPGA, induction motor, sensorless control,speed observer.
, , , Stator voltage, current, and flux, rotor flux., , ,,Stator resistance, rotor resistance, statorinductance, rotor inductance, magnetizinginductance., , Rotor speed, rotor flux linkages speed,stator current angular frequency., , , Variables of multiscalar motor model., Stationary and rotating reference frames.Observer gains., Rotor flux speed PI controller parameters., , , Motor coefficients.(subscript) Variable calculated from steady state.Variables estimated using the observer.Vector quantities.I. I
speed sensor is an inconvenient device and has manydrawbacks. The most important one is reducing theruggedness and the simplicity of ac motors. It is also a costfactor, since the provision of a special motor-shaft extensionto mount the encoder leads to more expensive machines. The
Manuscript received June 18, 2001; revised April 17, 2002. This work wassupported by Fulbright Organization.H. Abu-Rub is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Birzeit Uni-versity, Palestine (e-mail: haithem@birzeit.edu).H. A. Toliyat is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, TexasA&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3128 USA (e-mail: Toliyat@ee.tamu.edu).J. Guzinski and Z. Krzeminski are with the Faculty of Electrical & ControlEngineering, Technical University of Gdansk, Gdnask, 80-952, Poland (e-mail: jarguz@pg.gda.pl).Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TEC.2003.811735
use of delicate optical encoders lowers the system reliability,especially in a hostile environment. Because of these problems,it is an important requirement to eliminate the speed sensorfrom the control systems. Thus, from the beginning of the1980s, there were serious research works throughout the worldto control induction machines without the need for speedsensors [1]–[7]. It is important to calculate all state variables from stator ter-minal.Differentmethodsareusedforfluxandspeedestimation.The calculation methods of state variables may be classified asmodelsandobservers.Modelsincomparisonwithobserversareless complicated. In the case of induction motor, there are statorvoltage model, rotor current model, and mixed models. Usingthese models, it is possible to identify the stator and rotor fluxlinkages. The accuracy of these variables depends on the motoroperating point, exactness of the parameters used, and the sen-sitivity of the model to drift in these parameters. The voltagemodel is not precise at low frequencies; however, it is not sensi-tive to rotor resistance variations. On the other hand, the currentmodel is sensitive to rotor resistance variations and is not ac-curate in calculating the rotor speed, especially at high speed.However, it is more precise, compared to the voltage model, atlow frequencies. The mixed model integrates the advantages of both models. Because of these inaccuracies in calculating theflux linkages, in many solutions an observer by introducing anadditional feedback loop is used.In [8], the principle operation of speed observer applied tofield oriented induction motor is presented. A modified methodfor a drive with nonlinear control is used. Currently, in motordrive systems, fixed-point digital signal processors (DSPs) arewidely used. Many research centers design their own systemsusing DSPs, which make it possible to realize research projectsand to directly use the solution for industry application. Theproposed control system is realized on a widely used fixedpoint DSP. FPGA systems are very significant since theyhave intelligent and convenient computer-aided design (CAD)systems, which replace the design of microprocessor controlsystems with higher order computer programming. The use of FPGA system makes it possible to realize parts of the controlsystem using hardware, which unloads the main processorfrom parts of the realized tasks. In this paper, experimentalresults are presented for the control system implemented onthe TMS320C50 and partly on a FPGA system (FLEX6000family). A voltage source inverter with predictive current con-troller feeds the induction motor. The input commands for thePWM algorithm are the amplitude and the angular frequencyof stator current. Variables are presented in per unit system.
0885-8969/03$17.00 © 2003 IEEE
et al.
Fig. 1. Block diagram of a modified rotor angular speed observer.Fig. 2. Proposed induction motor control system.
where is the time constant of the first order delay filter. Thefirst part of (20) is the equation of PI controller (12) and thesecond part is the filtered value of the rotor flux vector. Theblock diagram of a modified speed observer is presented inFig. 1.As will be shown in the simulation results for the speed ob-server system from Fig. 1, the error at steady state is about 2%.This error is less than the case of using an observer withouttaking into account angular speed of flux linkages calculatedfrom the steady state condition.IV. S
The overall closed-loop control system including the speedobserver has been simulated using C language programming.The estimated speed has been applied to the speed controllerfor the nonlinear control system shown in Fig. 2. In Fig. 3, theactual and calculated rotor speed waveforms using steady state(15) are shown. It is seen that at steady state, the results aresimilaranda15%errorappearsonlyduringthetransient.Figs.4and 5 show satisfactory results using the speed observer (20) fora wide range of different speeds. It is seen that the estimation
Fig. 3. Waveforms of actual speed
and calculated speed
using steadystate relationship (26).
error does not exceed 4%. The presented observer works alsoproperly at low speeds. At around 1% of the rated speed, theerror is only about 3%. At steady state, a speed estimation errorin spite of tuned motor parameters appears. This is due to theobserver principle of operation where rotor flux speed at theoutput of PI controller continuously traces real value. Error canonly be reduced by the tuning of PI controller.

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