Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
zebu cattle adaptability

zebu cattle adaptability

Ratings: (0)|Views: 800 |Likes:
Published by rengachen

More info:

Published by: rengachen on Oct 23, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

02/01/2013

pdf

text

original

G E N E T IC
A N D
B IO L O G IC A L
A S P E C T S
O F
Z E B U
A D A P T A B IL IT Y
1, 2
J. W . T u rn e r
L o u isia n a S ta te
U n iv e r s ity , B a to n
R o u g e
7 0 8 0 3
Sum m ary
T he
u tility
a n d
d o c u m e n ta tio n
of traits
a n d
c h a ra c te ris tic s
o f
Z e b u ,
B os
in d ic u s ,
c a ttle
i n
b e e f
p ro d u c tio n
i n
th e
U n ite d
S ta te s
a re
d is -
c u s s e d
w ith
r e f e r e n c e
t o
a d a p ta tio n .
Z e b u
c a ttle a re u n iq u e ly
suited to
h o t c lim a te s d u e
t o
c o a t,
h id e ,
s k in
a n d
h e m a to lo g ic a l
a ttrib u te s .
F o rm ,
g ro w th
a n d
p h y s io lo g ic a l
a s p e c t s
a re
u n iq u e
g e n e tic
a ttrib u te s
w h ic h
a re
d iffe re n t
fro m
th o s e
o fB o s ta u r u s c a ttle . C o m p a re d
w ith
B os
ta u r u s
c a ttle ,
Z e b u
c a ttle
a re
lo w e r in
re -
p ro d u c tio n , la te r m a tu rin g ,

s lo w e r g ro w in g a n d lo w e r in b e e f q u a lity . Z e b u c a ttle a re v a lu a b le in c r o s s b r e e d in g ,

w ith
a d a p tiv e
a s p e c t s
t r a n s -
m itted
a n d
la rg e
a m o u n ts
o f
h e te ro s is
i n
g ro w th , m a te rn a l e ffe c ts a n d
re p ro d u c tiv e tra its .
(K e y W o rd s : B e e f c a ttle , A d a p ta tio n , Z e b u , B os
in d ic u s , P ro d u c tio n .)
In tro d u c tio n
A d a p ta tio n
is a
b r o a d
t e r m
u s e d
t o
d e s c r i b e
th e
a b ility
of anim als to
a d ju s t to
e n v iro n m e n -
ta l c o n d itio n s
or to
in fe r g e n e tic
m o d ific a tio n s
th a t
m ake
a n im a ls
m o re
s u ita b le
fo r
e x is te n c e
u n d e r
s p e c ific e n v iro n m e n ta l
c o n d itio n s . Z e b u ,
B os
in d ic u s ,
c a ttle
a re
w id e ly
r e c o g n i z e d
a s
a d a p ta b le
t o
tro p ic a l
a n d
s u b tro p ic a l
e n v iro n -
m e n ts
th a t
a re
r e s t r i c t i v e
t o
B o s ta u r u s
c a ttle .
H ow ever,
o b je c tiv e
m easurem ents
of traits
a n d
c h a ra c te ris tic s
th a t
d ire c tly
a ffe c t a d a p tio n
a re
lim ited .
M ost
w o rk
d o c u m e n ts
th e
e ffe c ts
o f
e n v iro n m e n ta l
fa c to rs
o n
p ro d u c tio n
v a ria b le s
o r
th e
b r o a d
e ffe c ts
o f
b r e e d
com parisons
under specified environm ents.
D iscussion
R esearch
in to
a d a p ta tio n
c a n
b e
v ie w e d
fro m
tw o
classical perspectives:
= P r e s e n te d
at a sym posium on
" T h e R o le o f Z e b u
C a ttle
i n
E ffic ie n t
B eef
P ro d u c tio n "
a t
th e
A nnu.
M eet. of the Southern Sec.of the ASAS,Feb. 5,1 9 7 9 ,
in N ew O rleans, L A .
Z P u b lis h e d
w ith
approval of
th e
D ire c to r o f th e
L o u is ia n a A g r . E x p . S ta .
1 .
T he
direct m easure
of perform ance
u n d e r
m easured
e n v iro n m e n ta l
s t r e s s
is the
a p -
p r o a c h
u tiliz e d
b y
r e s p o n s e
s c ie n tis ts .
T he
a p p lic a tio n
i s
t o
c o n tro l
th e
e n v i-
ro n m e n ta l
s t r e s s e s
re d u c in g
perform ance
or to
p re d ic t th e
a b ility o f th e
a n im a l to
a d ju s t to
e n v iro n m e n ta l stre sse s (D o w lin g ,
1 9 7 4 ; M c D o w e ll, 1 9 7 4 ).
2 .
T he
c la s s ic a l g e n e tic
a p p r o a c h
o f
f i t n e s s
d e ta ils
a
s e le c tiv e
v a lu e
fo r
a d a p te d
a n i-
m als
t o
e f f e c t
a
p o p u la tio n
c h a n g e
i n
harm ony
w ith
e x is tin g
e n v iro n m e n ta l
c o n d itio n s (F a lc o n e r, 1 9 6 0 ).
R o h le s
(1 9 7 4 )
p r e s e n t e d
a n
in te re s tin g
c o n -
c e p t
fo r
e n v iro n m e n ta l
r e s e a r c h
a s
th e
e c o -
s y s t e m
c o m p le x .
T he
e c o s y s t e m
c o m p le x
in -
c lu d e d :
( i )
physical factors
d e fin in g
th e
e n v i-
ro n m e n t;
(2 )
o rg a n is m ic
fa c to rs ,
w h ic h
a re
fa c to rs
d e s c rib in g
th e
a n im a l, a n d
(3 )
a d a p tiv e
fa c to rs ,
th o s e
fa c to rs
th a t
in te ra c t
w ith
th e
p h y s ic a l
fa c to rs
a n d
o r g a n is m
t o
a llo w
fo r
a d a p ta tio n . W h ile a d a p ta tio n
is a
c o m p le x
s u b -
je c t,
th e
a p p lic a tio n
o f
k n o w le d g e
c o n c e r n in g
Z e b u
c a ttle
is im p o rta n t
t o
b e e f p ro d u c tio n
i n
s e v e r a l
e n v iro n m e n ts .
T h is
p a p e r
w ill
p r e s e n t
p e rtin e n t
r e s e a r c h
th a t
d o c u m e n ts
th e a d a p tiv e
a s p e c t s
o f
Z e b u
c a ttle
a n d
th e ir
u tility
a s
a
g e n e tic e n tity .
B onsm a
(1 9 7 3 )
p r e s e n t e d
a
com prehensive
re v ie w
o f
a d a p ta tio n
a n d
b e e f
c a ttle
b re e d in g .
Z e b u , B os
in d ic u s ,c a ttle
e v o lv e d
i n
th e
S o u th -
e rn
hem isphere
a n d
~ td a p te d
t o
m uggy
a n d
s c o r c h in g
e n v iro n m e n ts .
T h e s e in c lu d e e n v iro n -
m e n ts
d e fin e d
b y
m ean
m o n th ly
te m p e ra tu re s
o f
1 8
C
o r h ig h e r a n d
relative h u m id ity
of 55%
o r
h ig h e r.
I t
w as
n o te d
th a t
h u m id ity
w as
o f
l i t t l e
im p o rta n c e
com pared
t o
te m p e ra tu re .
T h e re fo re ,
p a rtic u la r
em phasis
w as
p la c e d
o n
te m p e ra tu re
e ffe c ts
i n
th e
d i s c u s s i o n
o f
Z e b u
c a ttle .
B ecause
Z e b u
c a ttle
a re
s m o o th -
c o a te d ,
h a v e
p rim ary
h a ir fo llic le s , h a v e
b e tte r
d e v e lo p e d
sw eat and
s e b a c e o u s g la n d s th a n
B os
ta u r u s
c a ttle
a n d
c a n
lo s e
m o re
m o istu re
b y
e v a p o ra tio n , th e y
a re
c ite d
a s
a d a p ta b le
t o
h o t
c lim a te s .
I n
a d d itio n ,
th e
a b ility
t o
m a in ta in
th e rm a l
e q u ilib riu m
i s
a
n e c e s s a r y
fa c to r
fo r
1 2 0 1
JO U R N A L
O F A N I M A L S C IE N C E , V o l. 5 0 , N o . 6 , 1 9 8 0
1 2 0 2
T U R N E R
norm al
fu n c tio n
a n d
perform ance.
B onsm a
(1 9 7 3 )
e x p a n d e d
Z e b u
a ttrib u te s
t o

in c lu d e c o a t c o lo r, p ig m e n ta tio n , c o n fo rm a tio n , g e n e tic a d a p ta tio n

t o
th e
s o u r c e
o f n u tritio n
(fo ra g e s)
a n d
resistance to
pests and
disease. T he
im p lic a -
tio n s
a re
th a t
Z e b u
c a ttle
a re
a d a p ta b le
t o
p o o r e r
q u a lity
forages and
soils of low
p H
a n d
a re
resistant to
e c to p a ra s ite s a n d
diseases trans-
m itted
b y
e c t o p a r a s i t e s .
F r i s c h
a n d
V ercoe
(1 9 7 8 )
s tu d ie d
1 5 -m o n th
w e ig h ts
o f
B os
in d i-
c u s ,
B os
ta u r u s
a n d
crosses and
lis te d B ra h m a n s
a s
r e s i s t a n t
t o
ticks, w orm s,
p in k e y e , h e a t
a n d
n u tritio n a l flu c tu a tio n s . B ra h m a n s(B o s
in d ic u s )
w ere
a l s o
c ite d
a s h a v in g
lo w e r
in h e re n t v o lu n -
t a r y
f e e d
in ta k e a n d
lo w e r re la tiv e m a in te n a n c e
re q u ire m e n ts .
H ow es
(1 9 6 3 )
re p o rte d
th a t
h e m a to lo g ic a l
com parisons
o f
B rahm an
a n d
H erefo rd
c a ttle
i n
F lo rid a
w ere
re la te d
t o
re s p ira tio n
a n d
a d a p ta tio n .
B rahm an
c a ttle
w ere
o b s e r v e d
t o
h a v e
h ig h e r
re d
b lo o d
c e ll
c o u n ts ,
to ta l
c e ll
v o lu m e
a n d
h e m o g lo b in
v a lu e s .
V enous
b lo o d
of Brahm an
c a ttle
h a d
less carbon
d io x id e th a n
d id
th a t
of H erefords. These
results im ply
th a t
B rahm an
c a ttle
a re
c a p a b le
o f
m a in ta in in g
lo w e r
re s p ira tio n
ra te s
d u rin g
p e rio d s
o f
h ig h
a m b ie n t
tem peratures.
E v a n s
(1 9 6 3 )
c o n firm e d
t h e s e
h e m a to lo g ic a l a d v a n ta g e s
fo r
Z e b u
c a ttle
a s
w e ll
a s
th e
e f f e c t
o f
th e
a d v a n ta g e s
o n
a d a p ta tio n
t o
te m p e ra tu re
s t r e s s .
A lle n
(1 9 6 2 )
com pared
B rahm an
a n d
J e r s e y
c a ttle
s k in
tem peratures and
respiration rates at
air tem petaures
fro m
2 4
C
t o
35 C. Zebu
c a ttle
h a d
lo w e r
re s p ira tio n
ra te s
a t a ll le v e ls o f
s k in
te m p e ra tu re ,
a n d
s k in
te m p e ra tu re
o f
Z e b u s
c lo s e ly
fo llo w e d
a ir
te m p e ra tu re .
Z e b u
c a ttle
h a d
th e
lo w e r sk in te m p e ra tu re
b e lo w
24 C
a n d
th e
h ig h e r
m ean
te m p e ra tu re
a b o v e
3 5
C .
I t
s h o u ld
b e
n o te d
th a t
J e r s e y
c a ttle a re g e n e ra lly
a c c e p te d
as adapted
t o
w arm
c lim a te s .
C artw rig h t
(1 9 5 5 )
d o c u m e n te d
a d v a n ta g e s
i n
h e a t
to le ra n c e
o f
B rahm an
a n d
F -1
c r o s s e s
o v e r
H erefo rd
c a ttle .
S u p e rio r
sum m er
g a in s
w ere
c ite d
a s
im p o rta n t
m easures
o f
a d a p tiv e
m erit
o f
B rahm ans
a n d
th e
B rahm an
x
H ere-
fo rd
c r o s s e s .
J o h n s o n
(1 9 6 3 )
c ite d
th e
m a jo r
fa c to r
fa v o rin g
B rahm an
c a ttle
a s
h e a t
to le ra n c e
o r
th e a b ility to
r e s p o n d
t o
increasing heat loads.
T u g w e ll
e t
a l.
(1 9 6 9 )
s tu d ie d
le v e ls o f B r a h -
m an
b re e d in g
a n d
c o lo r
a s
fa c to rs
a ffe c tin g
h o rn
fly ,
H a e m a to b ia
ir r ita n s
(L .),
a ttra c tiv e -
n e s s
a n d (o r)
re p e lle n c y .
A s
B rahm an
b re e d in g
( p e r c e n t a g e
o f
b lo o d )
i n c r e a s e d ,
a c tu a l
f l y
c o u n ts
d e c r e a s e d ,
r e g a r d l e s s
o f
c o lo r.
S u b s e -
q u e n t
in v e s tig a tio n
o f
a m b ie n t
te m p e ra tu re ,
h u m id ity
a n d
s u n lig h t in
a s s o c ia tio n
w ith
h o rn
f l y
c o u n ts
a n d
re s p ira tio n
rate, surface tem per-
a tu re
a n d
m o istu re
o f th e
a n im a l d id
n o t d e fin e
a ttra c tiv e n e s s
a n d (o r)
re p e lle n c y .
B rahm an
b re e d in g
w as
c ite d
a s
th e
im p o rta n t
v a ria b le .
B ro w n
e t
a l.
(1 9 7 7 )
fo u n d
lig h te r c o a t c o lo r to
b e im p o r ta n t in re d u c in g fly c o u n ts in A rk a n s a s .
B reed
d iffe re n c e s
w ere
im p o rta n t
d u rin g
p e ri-
o d s
o f
h ig h
f l y
p o p u la tio n s . N o
specific refer-
e n c e
t o
th e
B rahm an
b r e e d
w as
m ade,
y e t
p u r e b r e d
c a ttle
w ere
s tu d ie d .
R ic k
(1 9 6 2 )
e s ta b lis h e d
B os
in d ic u s
b re e d in g
a s
a
fa c to r
p ro m o tin g
r e s i s t a n c e
t o
th e c a ttle tic k , B o o p b i-
lu s
m ic r o p lu s .
B os
in d ic u s
x
B os
ta u r u s
c r o s s e s
w ere m o re
resistant than
w ere
B os
ta u r u s
c a ttle .
A
p o rtio n
o f th e
r e s i s t a n c e
w as
term ed
in n a te .
S tro th e r
e t
a l.
(1 9 7 4 )
d o c u m e n te d
th e
r e s i s t -
a n c e
o f
B rahm an
c a ttle
t o
th e
L o n e
S ta r tic k ,
A m blyornm a
am ericanum .
B o th
B rahm an
a n d
B rahm an
\u2022
H erefo rd
c r o s s e s
w ere
m o re
re -
s is ta n t th a n
H erefo rd s.
S te e lm a n
e t
a l.
(1 9 7 3 )
a n d
S te e lm a n
e t
a l.
(1 9 7 6 )
d o c u m e n te d
th e
e f f i c a c y
o f
B rahm an
c h a ra c te ris tic s
i n
re d u c in g
w e ig h t
lo s s
d u e
t o
m o s q u ito
a tta c k .
B rahm an
s t e e r s
w ere
fo u n d
t o
b e
m o re
to le ra n t
t o
m o s q u ito
a tta c k
th a n
w ere
H erefords
o n
th e
b a s i s
o f
w e ig h t
g a in s .
D o w lin g
(1 9 7 4 )
dism issed
th e
n o tio n
th a t
h e a t
to le ra n c e
lim its
B os
ta u r u s
c a ttle
i n
A u stra lia . H e
c ite d th e
resistance ofB os
in d ic u s
c a ttle
t o
tic k s a n d
parasites and
c a lv in g
e a s e
a s
th e
im p o rta n t
a d a p tiv e a ttrib u te s a n d
s u g g e s te d
th a t
c r o s s b r e e d i n g
w ith
B os
ta u r u s
c a ttle
i s
necessary to
im p ro v e p ro d u c tio n
e ffic ie n c y .
T he
e n v iro n m e n ta l
e ffe c ts
o f
n u tritio n a l
s ta tu s
a n d
b r e e d
x
e n v iro n m e n t
in te ra c tio n
o n
Z e b u
cattle are d ifficu lt to
d o c u m e n t.
Z e b u
c a t-
t l e
a re u n iv e rs a lly a c c e p te d
as adapted
t o
p o o r
q u a lity
f o r a g e s .
S ta te d
d iffe re n tly ,
th e y
c a n
s u rv iv e a n d
p r o d u c e
in re s tric tiv e e n v iro n m e n ts .
M ost
a ttrib u te
th is
q u a lity
o f
Z e b u
c a ttle
t o
a
g e n e tic
a b ility
t o
u tiliz e
f o r a g e s
m o re
e f f i -
c ie n tly . R o g e rs o n
e t a l.(1 9 6 8 )
com pared
B oran
( Z e b u )
s t e e r s
w ith grade H erefords (B o s
ta u r u s )
o n
h ig h
e n e r g y
d ie ts
a n d
c o n c lu d e d
th a t
Z e b u
steers have
lo w e r
d ry m a tte r in ta k e s b u t d o
n o t
u se
fe e d stu ffs
m o re
e ffic ie n tly . Z e b u
c a ttle h a d
lo w e r
m e ta b o lic
r a t e s ,
a n d
w a te r
in ta k e
w as
sim ilar.
E ffic ie n c y
w as
m easured
a s
g ro w th
re la tiv e
t o
f e e d
in ta k e .
L o f g r e e n
e t
a l.
(1 9 7 5 )
re p o rte d
th a t
B rahm an
\u2022
B ritish
steers utilized
e n e r g y
m o re
e ffic ie n tly
th a n
B ritish
s t e e r s
u n d e r
a
h e a t
s t r e s s
o f
w arm
d rin k in g w a te r
(3 2 .2
C )
com pared
t o
c o o le d
d rin k in g
w a te r
A D A P T A B IL IT Y A S P E C T S O F Z E B U C A T T L E
1 2 0 3
(1 8 .3
C ).
M o o re
e t
a l.
(1 9 7 5 )
re p o rte d
a
s ig -
n ific a n t
b r e e d
x
diet (energy
le v e l) in te ra c tio n
i n
d ie t d ig e s tib ilitie s .
T h e y
o b s e r v e d
th a t B ra h -
m an
b u ll
c a lv e s
w ere
m o re
e ffic ie n t
o n
lo w
e n e r g y
(h ig h
r o u g h a g e )
d ie ts
th a n
w ere
H ere-
fo rd s, y e t
H erefords w ere superior to
B rahm ans
o n
a
h ig h
e n e r g y
(lo w
ro u g h a g e ) d ie t. T h e
im -
p lic a tio n
w as
th a t
B rahm an
c a ttle
u tiliz e
lo w
e n e r g y
d ie ts
m o re
e ffe c tiv e ly
th a n
h ig h
e n e r g y
d ie ts .
R e la te d
o b s e rv a tio n s
m ade
b y
B onsm a
(1 9 7 3 )
v e rify
th a t
Z e b u
c a ttle
f o u n d e r
re a d ily
u n d e r
in te n s iv e
fe e d lo t
c o n d itio n s
w ith
m oder-
a te
t o
h ig h
e n e r g y
d ie ts .
F e e d
in ta k e ,
n u tri-
tio n a l
re q u ire m e n ts
fo r
g ro w th
a n d
m a in te -
n a n c e
re q u ire m e n ts
fo r
Z e b u
c a ttle
m ay
b e
d iffe re n t
fro m
th o s e
fo r
B os
ta u r u s
c a ttle
( F r i s c h
a n d
V ercoe,
1 9 7 8 ).
E v id e n c e
a t
le a s t
suggests advantages for Zebu
c a ttle
o n
r o u g h a g e
d ie ts .
Z e b u
c a ttle
d o
n o t
a d a p t
t o
h ig h
e n e r g y
feeding as readily asB os
t a u r u s .
T he
u n iq u e
q u a litie s
of Zebu
c a ttle
i n
com -
p a r is o n
t o
B os
ta u r u s
b r e e d s
a re
im p o rta n t
c o n s id e ra tio n s
fo r th e
b re e d in g
d e c is io n s m a d e
b y
m any
c a ttle m e n .
B ecause
Z e b u
c a ttle
a re
hum ped
a n d
a ty p ic a l
i n
c o n fo rm a tio n ,
a n d
a p p e a r
b y
o b s e rv a tio n
t o
b e
s h a llo w
a n d
n a r -
ro w
i n
th e
h e a rt g irth
a n d
n a rro w
in the
c r o p s ,
th e y
m ay
n o t
b e
c o n s id e r e d
a s a c c e p ta b le
b e e f
a n im a ls .
Z e b u
c a ttle
g ru n t
o r
b e llo w
m o re
th a n
lo w , a n d
th e ir d is p o s itio n is tru ly
d iffe re n t.
Z e b u
c a ttle
a re
d o c ile
a n d
quiet yet possess the
a b ility
t o
becom e
a r o u s e d
m o re
q u ic k ly
th a n
d o
B os
ta u r u s
c a ttle . Z e b u
c a ttle
are difficult to
h a n d le
u n d e r
fo rc e d
o r
s t r e s s
w o rk in g
c o n d i-
tio n s .
Som e
w ill
fig h t,
ju m p
o r
e x h ib it
e x -
trem ely
n e r v o u s
b e h a v io r.
O th ers
s u lk
a n d
r e f u s e
t o
b e
m oved
w hen
th e y
t i r e
o r
f a c e
u n fa m ilia r
su rro u n d in g s.
I t
i s
s a f e
t o
s a y
th a t
m o re
r e s e a r c h
in to
a n im a l
b e h a v io r
i s
n e e d e d
a n d
th a t
le a rn in g
a n d
u n d e rs ta n d in g
th e
Z e b u
p s y c h e
w ill
b e
a n
in te re s tin g
r e s e a r c h
a r e a .
Som e
Z e b u
c a ttle
a re
e x tre m e ly
d o c ile
w h ile
o th e rs
a re
to ta lly
u n ru ly .
D isp o sitio n
i s
b e -
lie v e d
t o
b e
h e rita b le ,
a n d
it is the m ost im por-
ta n t
r e a s o n
w hy
Z e b u
c a ttle
a re
not used
m o re
in crossbreeding.
Z e b u
c a ttle
a re
p o o r e r
i n
re p ro d u c tiv e
e f f i -
c ie n c y
th a n
B os
ta u r u s
c a ttle u n d e r s u b tro p ic a l
c o n d itio n s
in the
U n ite d
S ta te s (W a rn ic k , 1 9 6 3 ;
R eynolds,
1 9 7 3 ;
W y th e ,
1 9 7 0 ;
B azer,
1 9 7 3 ).
H ow es
(1 9 6 3 )
s ta te d
th a t
B rahm an
cow s
h a d
lo w e r
o v u la tio n
ra te s
th a n
d id
H erefo rd
cow s.
A lso ,
lo w e r
le v e ls
o f
th y ro id ,
a d r e n a l
a n d
o v a ria n
a c tiv ity
w ere
c ite d
a s
fa c to rs
c o n -
trib u tin g
t o
th e
B r a h m a n 's
greater heat
to le r-
a n c e
b u t
lo w e r re p ro d u c tiv e
e ffic ie n c y . H o w e s
(1 9 6 3 )
a n d
H e n tg e s
a n d
H ow es
(1 9 6 3 )
in d i-
c a te d
th a t
B rahm an
cow s
m ilk e d
m o re
th a n
H erefords
a n d
u s e d
fe e d stu ffs
a n d
n u trie n ts
fro m
b o d y
s t o r e s
t o
la c ta te
a t
th e
e x p e n s e
o f
re p ro d u c tio n .
D e la y e d
e s t r u s
a n d
s u b s e q u e n t
lo w e r
re p ro d u c tiv e
ra te s
w ere
o b v io u s
e f f e c t s .
K in c a id
(1 9 6 3 )
d o c u m e n te d
a
la c ta tio n
s ta tu s
x
b r e e d
in te ra c tio n
i n
f e r t i l i t y
(c a lv in g
ra te ).
D ry
B rahm an
cow s w ere
1 3 %
m ore fertile than
w et
B rahm an
c o w s , w h ile
w et
H erefo rd
cow s
b r e d
b e tte r (1 0 % ) th a n
dry H ereford
cow s.
T he
B rahm an
b r e e d
o f th e
U n ite d
S ta te s h a s
o th e r
u n iq u e
re p ro d u c tiv e
q u a litie s .
P e rin a ta l
c a lv in g
lo s s e s
a re
n o rm a lly
g re a te r
i n
p u r e b r e d
B rahm an
h e r d s
(R eynolds,
1 9 7 3 ).
F r a n k e
e t a l.
(1 9 7 5 )
d o c u m e n te d
th e
in c id e n c e
a n d
c h a r a c -
te riz e d
th e
w eak
c a lf
syndrom e
i n
B rahm an
c a ttle . P u r e b r e d
B rahm an
calves are often lack-
in g
i n
v ig o r a t b irth
a n d
a re
a d v e r s e ly
a f f e c t e d
b y
c o o l, m o is t c o n d itio n s . P u b e r ty
o c c u r s la te r
i n
Z e b u
c a ttle
th a n
i n
B os
ta u r u s
breeds (Plasse
e t
a l.,
1968b; Bazer,
1 9 7 3 ).
L a te
sexual m atu-
r i t y
i s
a
w e ll-k n o w n
c h a ra c te ris tic
o f
Z e b u
c a ttle .
B rahm an
c a ttle
h a v e
a
g e s ta tio n
p e rio d
o f
2 9 2
d a y s
( P la s s e
e t
a l.,
1968c), and
c a lv in g
in te rv a ls
average 410
d a y s (P lasse
e t a l.,
1 9 6 8 a ) .
P la s s e
e t
a l.
(1 9 6 8 b )
o b s e r v e d
a seasonal estrus
a c tiv ity
i n
B rahm an
h e ife rs ,
w ith
sp rin g
a n d
sum m er
a c tiv ity
g re a te s t.
Z e b u
c a ttle
a re
r e c o g n iz e d
a s
h a v in g
e x c e lle n t
lo n g e v ity
a n d
little d y s to c ia (W y th e , 1 9 7 0 ).
B rahm an
c a ttle
h a v e
b e e n
c h a r a c te r iz e d
a s
s lo w -g ro w in g
fe e d lo t
c a ttle
th a t
a re
lo w e r
g ra d in g
a n d
p r o d u c e
le s s
te n d e r
b e e f
(T u rn e r,
1 9 7 3 ).
S lo w e r
g ro w th
perform ance
fo r
p u r e -
b r e d
B rahm an
s te e r s
w as
a ls o
re p o rte d
b y
C ro c k e tt
(1 9 7 3 )
a n d
P e a c o c k
e t
a l.
(1 9 7 3 ).
C arpenter
(1 9 7 3 )
re p o rte d
th a t
com pared
t o
s tra ig h tb re d
B rahm an,
B ritish
\u2022
B rahm an
c r o s s e s
p r o d u c e d
c a r c a s s e s
w ith
in c re a s ~ e d
w e ig h t,
g r a d e ,
p a la ta b ility
a n d
fa t
c o n te n t
w ith
lo w e r
p e r c e n ta g e
le a n
a n d
b o n e .
Z e b u
p u r e b r e d s
a re
n o t
r e c o g n iz e d
a s
e ffic ie n t
b e e f
c a ttle
b u t
a re
d e s ira b le
i n
r e s t r i c t i v e
e n v iro n m e n ts .
T he
g e n e tic
u tility
o f
Z e b u
c a ttle
has been
w e ll
d o c u m e n te d
i n
b e e f
p ro d u c tio n
system s.
Z e b u
c r o s s b r e d s ,
B os
in d ic u s
\u2022
B os
t a u r u s ,
in c lu d in g
r e c ip r o c a l
crosses, exhibit heterosis in
s e v e r a l
e c o n o m ic a lly
im p o rta n t
t r a i t s .
T he
g r e a te s t
a n d
m o s t im p o rta n t
h y b rid
e ffe c ts
a re
fo u n d
i n
re p ro d u c tiv e
perform ance
(T u rn e r
e t
a l.,
1 9 6 8 ;
B azer,
1 9 7 3 ).
M a te rn a l
h e te ro s is
i s
la rg e f o r w e a n in g w e ig h t (M c D o n a ld
and Turner,

Activity (2)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->