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Responsive Document - CREW: NARA: Regarding Record Management and Cloud Computing: 11/28/2011 - Cloud Computing FINAL

Responsive Document - CREW: NARA: Regarding Record Management and Cloud Computing: 11/28/2011 - Cloud Computing FINAL

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Published by CREW
On June 24, 2011, CREW filed a Freedom of Information Act request with the Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, Department of Energy, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Labor, Department of Veterans Affairs, General Services Administration, National Archives and Records Administration, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, seeking all records reflecting how these agencies and departments plan to fulfill their records management requirements after they move their email systems to a cloud computing environment. The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has recognized the many records management challenges associated with cloud computing and issued guidance (NARA Bulletin 2010-04, Guidance on Managing Records in Cloud Computing Environment) to all agencies. Several of these agencies and departments have already moved their emails to a cloud computing environment, or are in the process of moving their email systems to a cloud. Others are still in the information gathering stage. CREW seeks information on what steps these agencies and departments have taken to comply with the bulletin as well as records between these departments and agencies and cloud computing providers, such as Google or Microsoft.
On June 24, 2011, CREW filed a Freedom of Information Act request with the Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, Department of Energy, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Labor, Department of Veterans Affairs, General Services Administration, National Archives and Records Administration, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, seeking all records reflecting how these agencies and departments plan to fulfill their records management requirements after they move their email systems to a cloud computing environment. The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) has recognized the many records management challenges associated with cloud computing and issued guidance (NARA Bulletin 2010-04, Guidance on Managing Records in Cloud Computing Environment) to all agencies. Several of these agencies and departments have already moved their emails to a cloud computing environment, or are in the process of moving their email systems to a cloud. Others are still in the information gathering stage. CREW seeks information on what steps these agencies and departments have taken to comply with the bulletin as well as records between these departments and agencies and cloud computing providers, such as Google or Microsoft.

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Published by: CREW on Dec 05, 2011
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ERM Team Technology Evaluation: Cloud ComputingFY2009
TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: CLOUD COMPUTING
Cloud computing is still an evolving paradigm. Its definitions, use cases,underlying technologies, issues, risks, and benefits will be refined in aspirited debate by the public and private sectors. These definitions,attributes, and characteristics will evolve and change over time. Thisresearch was entirely conducted using resources from the Internet. CloudComputing is a dynamic topic that generates thousands of returns fromsearch engines. These sites are constantly being updated as the technologyevolves and users report their experiences. We have provided links whereappropriate, however, given these circumstances, we do not guarantee thatusers can return to those sites and retrieve identical information.
I.
Definitions
 Simply defined, cloud computing is a technology that allows users to utilizeand access via the Internet or a Virtual Private Network a scalable range of resources without having to build infrastructure to support these resourceswithin their own environments or networks. The concept of cloud computingwas recognized as early as the 1960s by the telecommunications industryand has evolved through advancements by leading technology companiessuch as IBM, Microsoft, and Google. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Information Technology Laboratory is developing guidance for cloud computing to bereleased in summer 2009. The guidance includes a draft definition of cloudcomputing as well as a model describing characteristics, delivery models,and deployment models. The current draft defines cloud computing as, “Amodel for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared poolof configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage,applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released withminimal management effort or service provider interaction.” (Draft NISTWorking Definition of Cloud Computing, 6-1-09)An easy to understand example of a simple cloud computing model isGoogle’s Gmailservice. This service allows users to send and receive e-mailwithout having to install separate software on their workstation. Users canaccess their e-mail, which is stored in Google’s cloud, using any currentInternet browser. A wide range of software applications, from photographediting (picnik.com) to financial management (mint.com) also follow this model and are entirely cloud based. Users of these services benefit byhaving their data securely stored and accessible from any internet enableddevice.Another easily understood configuration of cloud computing services is theonline storage of data provided by services such asmozy.comorAmazon’s S3. Here, users are simply paying for the convenience of having their data
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ERM Team Technology Evaluation: Cloud ComputingFY2009stored in the cloud. Pricing varies by service, but can be generallycharacterized as “pay as you go” solutions.
II. Architecture/Examples of Service Models:
 Cloud computing services can be grouped in the following categories ormodels:
Infrastructure-As-A-Service (IaaS) 
Platform-As-A-Service (PaaS) 
Applications-As-A-Service (AaaS)/Software-As-A-Service (SaaS) Cloud-based Infrastructure or Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): In thismodel, computing infrastructure such as servers, network equipment, anddata storage are offered by service providers on a scalable basis. It is alogical extension of web hosting services. Typically, users are billed only forthe amount of resources used.Cloud-based Development or Platform as a Service (PaaS): In addition tohaving some computing resources in the cloud, PaaS adds workflow servicesfor application development. This allows users to collaborate, develop, test,deploy, host and maintain applications in the same integrated developmentenvironment.Cloud-based Applications or Software as a Service (SaaS): In this model, thesoftware and all required infrastructure resides in the cloud. Users log-onfrom anywhere and have full access to the same resources. This is theimplementation of cloud computing that fully takes advantage of the benefitsoffered by cloud computing economies of scale, that is the hardware,operating system and software code all exist in the cloud (see table below). The table below illustrates these typical configurations of the three primarycloud computing models against the traditional client/server model (non-cloud) by showing where the IT resources would most likely be physicallylocated. “Within the organization” indicates that Federal agencies mustpurchase and maintain all equipment and platforms, which is currently thepredominant configuration in Federal agencies.
ConfigurationHardwareOperatingSystemSoftware Code
 TraditionalClient/ServerModelWithin theorganizationWithin theorganizationWithin theorganizationCloud-basedInfrastructure(IaaS)Cloud Within theorganizationWithin theorganization
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ERM Team Technology Evaluation: Cloud ComputingFY2009Cloud-basedDevelopment(PaaS)Cloud CloudWithin theorganizationCloud-basedApplications(SaaS)Cloud Cloud Cloud These models are constantly evolving as cloud service providers exploredifferent levels of services and as technology allows users to identifydifferent uses. One example of this might be the ability to have cloudservices available to any device capable of being connected to the internet,like a cell phone.Depending upon users’ concerns, needs, and other considerations, the aboveconfigurations can be deployed in the following ways:
Private cloud - enterprise owned or leased
Community cloud - shared infrastructure for specific community orinterest group
Public cloud - Sold to the public, open to anyone
Hybrid cloud - composition of two or more cloud configurations(Draft NIST Working Definition of Cloud Computing, 6-1-09)
III. Ongoing Initiatives:
 The Obama Administration, including the Federal CIO, is encouraging Federalagencies to adopt cloud-based solutions for a wide range of activities. Therecent deployment of the Open Government Initiative tasks Federal agencieswith identifying more cost-effective and efficient ways to make governmentmore transparent, collaborative, and participatory. Many of the recentGovernment 2.0 initiatives, including Data.gov, utilize cloud computingservices.
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  The OMB’s Infrastructure Modernization Program proposes the followingareas for cloud computing applications under the “Improving Innovation,Efficiency and Effectiveness in Federal IT” section in the FY ’10 PresidentialBudget request:
End-user communications and computing
Secure virtualized data centers
Portals, collaboration and messaging
Content, information, and records management
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"The federal government's Data.gov and USA.gov are among the Web sites nowrunning on Terremark's infrastructure-as-a-service offering, called Enterprise Cloud.A number of other agencies are soon expected to announce their own plans to hostapplications on the service.” J. Nicholas Hoover, “Inside Terremark's SecureGovernment Data Center,” Information Week, July 28, 2009
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