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Art

Art

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Published by Paul Muljadi
Art book
Art book

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Paul Muljadi on Dec 06, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/02/2013

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PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See http://code.pediapress.com/ for more information.PDF generated at: Tue, 06 Dec 2011 01:06:16 UTC
Art
 
Contents
Articles
Main article
1
Art1
History
17
History of art17
Classification disputes
30
Classificatory disputes about art30
Controversial art
35
The arts and politics35
Forms, genres, mediums, and styles
41
The arts41
References
Article Sources and Contributors49Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors51
Article Licenses
License53
 
1
Main article
Art
Clockwise from upper left: A self-portrait from Vincent van Gogh, an AfricanChokwe-statue, detail from the
 Birth of Venus
by Sandro Botticelli and a JapaneseShisa lion
Art
is the product or process of deliberatelyarranging items (often with symbolicsignificance) in a way that influences andaffects one or more of the senses, emotions,and intellect. It encompasses a diverse rangeof human activities, creations, and modes of expression, including music, literature, film,photography, sculpture, and paintings. Themeaning of art is explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics, whereasdisciplines such as anthropology, sociologyand psychology analyze its relationship withhumans and generations.Traditionally, the term
art 
was used to referto any skill or mastery. This conceptionchanged during the Romantic period, whenart came to be seen as "a special faculty of the human mind to be classified withreligion and science".
[1]
Generally, art ismade with the intention of stimulatingthoughts and emotions.
Evaluation
Philosopher Richard Wollheim distinguishes three approaches to assessing the aesthetic value of art:the realist, whereby aesthetic quality is an absolute value independent of any human viewthe objectivist, whereby it is also an absolute value, but is dependent on general human experiencethe relativist position, whereby it is not an absolute value, but depends on, and varies with, the human experienceof different humans.
[2]
An object may be characterized by the intentions, or lack thereof, of its creator, regardless of its apparent purpose. Acup, which ostensibly can be used as a container, may be considered art if intended solely as an ornament, while apainting may be deemed craft if mass-produced.The nature of art has been described by Wollheim as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of humanculture".
[3]
It has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exploring and appreciating formal elements for their own sake, and as
mimesis
or representation. Leo Tolstoyidentified art as a use of indirect means to communicate from one person to another.
[4]
Benedetto Croce and R.G.Collingwood advanced the idealist view that art expresses emotions, and that the work of art therefore essentiallyexists in the mind of the creator.
[5]
 
[6]
The theory of art as form has its roots in the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, andwas developed in the early twentieth century by Roger Fry and Clive Bell. Art as
mimesis
or representation has deep

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