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Ahmed a Bad

Ahmed a Bad

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Published by Nikhila Nagendra

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Published by: Nikhila Nagendra on Dec 06, 2011
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RESOURCESFORTHEAPPLICATIONOFACONSERVATIONPOLICY
Anypolicyforconservation,adaptationandrevitalisationpresupposesabroadapproachandthecarryingoutofactionsatdifferentlevels:institutional,regulatory,financial,technical,culturalandenvironmental.Theseactionsmustnotbeperformedindependentlyfromoneanother.Thechallengeconsistsofarticulatingthemwithinaproject.InFrancethisarticulationtakestheshapeofa"protectionandrevitalisationplan"(plandesauvegardeetdemiseenvaleur)whereintheurbanandarchitecturalheritageandtheorganizationandsociallifearedealtwithasanassetfromwhichthedevelopmentofthecentersmustbeconceived.Theprimeobjectiveoftheplanistoensuretheusefulnessoftheheritageinquestionanditsadaptationtohousingandactivitiesintheknowledgethattheprotectionofcitiesisundertheauspicesofurbanmanagementandcannotbelimitedonlytoaestheticconcerns.Tobeeffectiveatalllevels,theprotectionplanhasthestatusofanurbandevelopmentplan,therebyprovidingitwiththelegitimateauthoritytoprescribeattributionsandlanduse,trafficregulation,thebreakdownofvarioustypesofeconomicendeavorwhileitdefinestheprotectionofancientbuildingsandsetsforththerulesfornewconstruction.Dependingupontheprovisionsandobjectivesalloperationalandfinancialinstrumentswillbebroughttobearintheapplicationofrestorationandurbandevelopment.Theefficiencyandlastingnessoftheseresourcespresupposesthataboveandbeyondheritageconsiderationsthattheactionscomplywiththeprimaryneedsoftheinhabitantsandtheproperfunctioningofthecity.Therestorationofbuildingsisnottheautomaticconsequenceoftheconservationdecision.Inpurelyeconomictermsandfortheowners,theconservationofabuildingisdecideduponasimpleequation:aslongasthereturnsderivedfromtheoldbuildingislessthanthatofanewconstructiondemolitionwillbemoreattractivethanconservation.Thissameequationismorecomplexinthecaseofpublicauthorities:inadditiontotheparametersofimmediatereturnmustbeincludedindirectandlongtermadvantages,whetherquantifiableornot,suchastourism,trade,thechoiceofinvestments,employmentandpoliticalissues...Onemustalsotakeintoaccounteconomicparametersofmanagementsuchasthelimitingofurbansprawlwhichentailstheneedforaddedinfrastructureandoperatingcostsortheuseofanexistingpropertyassetsoastoreduceexpenditureintheconstructionsector,therebyfreeingthesefundsforothernationalorlocalpriorities.LetusrecallhereBertranddeJouvenel'spurposelyexaggeratedstatementin"Futuribles",sayingthattheconservationoftheNotre-DamedePariscathedralisaneconomicnonesensesinceaccesstheretoisfreeofcharge,itsyearlyupkeepcostsarestaggeringandthatonitssiteonecouldeasilyerecta20to50floorhighlyprofitableofficebuilding.Itbecomesthereforeimpossibletojustifyconservationindirectandpurelyeconomictermsjustasitisimpossibletoestimatebeforehandtheprofitsortheindirectandlong-termsocial,cultural,economicandmanagementbenefitsthatcanaccruetoacomunitythroughtheconservationofitsheritage.Conservationisapoliticalchoiceandassuchcannotdependupontherationalityoftheeconomicchoicefromtheview-
 
Resourcesfortheapplicationofaconservationpolicy
pointofthepropertyownerorowners.Theregulatoryparameterisrequiredtomodifythesimplelawofthemarkettowhichindividualsaresubmited.Theobjectiveofsucharegulatoryparameteristoreversethetermsoftheequationandtomaximizethereturnsfromthebuildingwhichistobeconservedbyminimizingthereturnsfromthenewconstructionwhichissupposedtoreplacetheoldone.Thefollowingfourmeasuresaregenerallyadoptedinordertoputintopracticesuchachoice:
1.Banningthedemolition
of
buildingswithculturalimportance
Thismeasureistheinalienablestartingpointforanyconservationanddependsupontheregulatoryprovisionsoftheprotectionandrevitalisationplanwhichprovidesalistofthebuildingstobeconservedandbanstheirdemolition.
2.Limitation
of
therights
to
build
Thislimitationseekstocontrolcompetitionbetweennewandoldinfavourofthelatter.Itisdependentupontheregulatoryprovisionsoftheplananditcangiverisetotheprohibitiontobuildonallorapartofagivenparcel,tothelimitationofbuiltareaandtothenumberoffloorspermittedaswellasvariousprovisionstoestablishaparitybetweenthecostofrestorationandthatofanewconstruction.
3.Financialassistanceandinterventions
in
favour
of
restoration
Therearevarioustypesofaid:subsidiestoowners,lowinterestratestogiveaboosttorenovationandhighratesinthecaseofnewconstructions,puttingoflow-costbuildingsonthemarket,technicalassistancetoownersintheprocessofrestoration,thetrainingofcraftsmenandsupplyingmaterialstobringdownrenovationcosts.
4.Improvement
of
theenvironment
Thedemolitionofbuildings,thekeepingoffreespace,themanagementofpublicspacesandurbanfacilitiesareallpartofwhatmakeshousingandone'senvironmentattractive.Invirtueofthelegalprinciplewhichstatesthat"publiceasementsdonotentitletoanindemnity",thedemolitionsimposedbytheplanmustbefinancedbytheownerasisthecaseforalleasementslikealignmentandothersaswell.Byrespectingthisprinciple,thepublicauthoritycannonethelesschoosetoreducetheburdentotheownerthroughaidiftheowner'sresourcesarelimitedorifthebalanceoftheoperationcannotshoulderthecosts.Theseprovisionscanbecompletedbyothermeasuressuchastheprohibitionofcertaintypesofactivitiessuchascommerceorofficeswhichenterintocompetitionwiththeresidentialfunctionandtherebyinhibititsdevelopment;therequisitioningofparkingareasascollectivefacilitiestobereservedfortheresidents,thereductionofrentalratesofoccupantswithlowincomeandthedevelopmentoflocalamenitiessuchasschools,playgrounds,etc.Nothingshortofsu~hasetofregulationscanensuretheframingofapolicyfortheconservationofurbanheritageandthedevelopmentofthehistoricalcenter.Havingmadetheseobservations,thefollowingrecommendationscanbesubmitted.
REGULATORYMEASURESTheframing
ofa
protectionandrevitalisationplan
Startingwiththeheritageinventory,aplanofprotectionmustbedrawnupfortheentirehistoricalcenterprovidingalistofthebuildingstobeconserved,thosewhichcanbereplacedandthosewhichmustbedemolished.Theregulationsaccompanyingtheplanshallenumeratetheprescriptionsforrestorationandfornewconstructionandshallalsodeterminetherighttoconstruct,reservetheplotswhicharetoremainfreeanddesignatelanduse(housing,offices,shops,vehicleaccess,etc.).Theoldbuildingscannotbeisolatedfromtheirnewcontextwhichmustberegulatedinkeepingwiththecharacterofthebuildingsandquartersconserved.Thus,fornewbuildings,theplandeterminestheconditionsofwhatmaybebuilt:height,implantation,footprintonthegroundandarchitecturalforms.Theplanmustbesufficientlyrestrictivesoastofosterrestoration.Asisthecasewithallurbanplanningdocuments,theprotectionandrevitalisationplanisdiscriminating.Inthesamewaythatotherplanningdocumentsdistinguishlandwhichcanbebuiltedfromlandthatcannot,decidethepermissableheightofbuildingsdependinguponthezone,theprotectionplan,insofarasitpertainstoanoldurbancomplextissue,setsforthrulesatthescaleoftheparcelinordertotakeintoaccountthediversityofsituationswhichitiscalledupontoconserve,correctormodify.Accordingly,theheightorusepatternauthorizedononeparcelmaybetotallydifferentfromthoseauthorizedonaadjacentparcel.UnvaryingprovisionslikeF.S.I.tocovertheentiretyofthecenterarethusnotappropriateonthediversifiedandcomplexurbanfabric.
 
Theprotectionandrevitalisationplanisnotanarchitecturalprojectandthusmakesadistinctionbetweenthe"urbanstage"andthe"architecturalstage".Itsetsforththeprincipleofconservationofthebuildingbutdoesnotennunciatethemodalitiesofitsrestoration.Itisinfacttheprojectpertainingtoeachindividualbuildingthatthescopeandformofrestorationwillbespecified.Thisdistinctionbetweenthetwostagesoftheprojectisafundamentalone.Duringthedraftingoftheprotectionplanitisnotpossibletodisposeofalltheinformationpertainingtoallthebuildingswhichwillonlybeassembledovertime.Hencethenecessitytomaintaincertainroomforadaptationinsettingforththerestorationprocedureonthebasisofwelldelineatedprocedures.Thustheprotectionandrevitalisationplansetsforththe"urbanconditionsoftheproject"butnottheprojectitself.IntroductionofapermitfordemolitionThispermitconcernsallbuildingsandnotonlytheentirebuildingbutalsotheelementswhichmakeitupandespeciallythosesubjectedtotrade.Inthecaseofbuildingsdesignatedintheplan,thepermitfordemolitionisautomaticallyrefused.Thesebuildings,protectedbytheplan,areconsideredasapartofarchaeologicalheritageandassuchcannotbysubjectedtoanyformofcommerce.Thegrantofapermittodemolishnoprotectedbuildingsshouldalsoinsistonaguaranteeofnon-inflictionofinjurytoadjacentbuildings.IntroductionofadeclarationprecedinganysaleandarightofpreemptionThisdeclarationprovidesthelocalauthoritywiththerighttopre-emptthepropertyatthesamepriceasthatstipulatedinthetransactionaftercheckingtoseethatitisconforminrelationtosimilarproperties.Thisproceduremakesitpossibletoobservetransactions,topurchasepropertyandtocontrolpropertyprices.IncreasingstringencyofthebuildingpermitThisdocumentmustsetforththeprovisionsofrestorationorofnewconstructionandbefollowedbyacertificateofcompletionandcomformity.Itisonlyuponreceivingthiscertificatethattheownermayuse,rentoutorselltheimmovableproperty.Likewiseitisnecessarytoexpandthescopeofbuildingpermitssoastoencompassadd-ons,transformationsoranychangeintheuseofabuilding.
Resourcesfortheapplicationofaconservationpolicy
IntroductionofenforcementofobligationThisconcernstheobligation,onthepartofownerswhohavesecuredconcessionalfinancing,failingwhichthecommunitywouldinterveneandcarryouttheprescribedworksandrecovertheexpensesfromtheconcernedownersoveratimeframe.Suchasystemiscalledforinprescribingworksespeciallyinbuildingsinperilordegradationposingdangertopersons,propertyandpatrimony.ClarificationofpropertytitlesTheauthoritiesmusttakenecessarymeasurestoenforcetheclarificationofpropertyownershiptitlesandtheobligationtohavepropertysalesregisteredimmediately.Thejurisdictionofsuccessionsishighlycomplexandthusthegreatnumberofnon-liquidatedsuccessionsraisesproblemsofpropertytitlewhenfilingforloansorsubsidies.Duringasalethetransferofpropertyrequiresthatacontractbedrafted.Thevalidationasofficialtitlecantakeanywherefrom3to4years.Moreover,thesaleofindividuallyheldpropertyissubjecttoataxof10%ofitsvalue.Whethersuccessionsorsimpletransferofpropertybysaleithasoftenbeenseenthatthetransferhasnotbeenreportedtotheadministration.Thuspropertyoftenremainsinthenameofadeceasedheadofhouseholdorformerowner.SanctionsForsanctionstobeeffectivetheyshouldbeperceivedasbeingstrictorperhapsevendisproportionatetotheoffencecommitted.Experienceshowsthatsuchanattitudedrasticallyreducesbreachoflawswhereasweaksanctionsorleniencyleadstolackofrespectforlawsandalsoinstilsacompetitiveclimateofwilfulnon-compliancewiththelaw.Apartfromrefusingaidandsubsidiestocontraveners,thebestsanctionsseemtobethosewhichbringastayontheworkaswellasthosewhichblocktheuseofpropertyuntilthemeasuresrecommendedbythepermitarestructlyobserved.
FINANCIALANDTAXATIONMEASURES
DirectsubsidiestoownersTheessenceofanysubsidyisthat,inreturn,thebeneficiaryrenderstherequiredserviceswhich,inthepresentcase,isrestoration.Therateofsubsidygranted

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