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Chemistry Chapter 3 Notes

Chemistry Chapter 3 Notes

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Published by: Tiffani Choy on Dec 06, 2011
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05/04/2012

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C
HAPTER
3:
 
T
HE
P
ERIODIC
T
ABLE
 
I.
 
The Periodic TableA.
 
Periods and Groups1.
 
Groups
columns in the periodic table, gives number of valence electrons2.
 
Period
rows in the periodic table, gives number of occupied energy levels3.
 
Gab between group 2 and group 3 is filled by transition elements from the 4
th
periodonwardsII.
 
Physical PropertiesA.
 
Nuclear Charge
given by the atomic number, and increases by one between successiveelements on the table as a proton is added to the nucleusB.
 
Effective Nuclear Charge
charge felt by the valence electrons after taking into account thenumber of shielding electrons that surround the nucleus.1.
 
Effective nuclear charge increases with nuclear charge as there is no change in thenumber of inner electrons2.
 
Effective nuclear charge experienced by an atom
s outer electrons increases withthe group number of the element. It increases across a period, but remains the samedown the group.C.
 
Shielding Electrons
the electrons in energy levels between the nucleus and valenceelectrons. They are known as shielding electrons because they shield the valence electronsfrom the full force of attraction exerted by the positive charge in the nucleus.D.
 
Atomic Radius
half the distance between neighboring nuclei, and can also be considered asthe distance from the nucleus to the other most electrons of the Bohr atom.1.
 
Atomic radii increase down a group as the number of occupied electron shells(given by period number) increases2.
 
Atomic radii decrease across a periodE.
 
Ionic Radius (self-explanatory)1.
 
Positive ions are smaller than their parent atoms as the formation of positive ionsinvolves the loss of other shells. Cation radii is always smaller than radius of theatoms from which they are derived as when metals are converted to their cations,they always do so by losing the electrons in their highest energy levels. Since the ionhas less electron that the atom from which it was derived, there is less mutualrepulsion among electrons, so electron orbitals shrink.2.
 
Negative ions are larger than parent atoms, as the formation of negative ionsinvolves addition of electrons into outer shells. Increased electron repulsionbetween electrons in outer shell causes the electrons to move further apart, andincrease the radius of the outer shell3.
 
Ionic radii increase down a group as the number of electron shells increase4.
 
Ionic radii decreases across a periodF.
 
Ionization Energy1.
 
Ionization energy is the amount of energy required to remove an electron from anatom to form a positive ion2.
 
Ionization energy increases across a period
increase in effective nuclear chargecauses an increase in attraction between outer electrons and nucleus makeselectrons more difficult.
 
3.
 
Decreases down a group, as electron removed is an electron shell furthest from thenucleus. Nuclear charge increase, but effective nuclear charge is about the same, dueto electron shielding, so increased distance reduces attractionG.
 
Electronegativity
strength with which an atom pulls on the electrons it shares in a covalent bond1.
 
Electronegativity increases from left to right across a period2.
 
Increase from top to bottom in a group3.
 
Positively charged nucleus pulls on the other electrons, so the smaller an atom, thehigher the electronegativity4.
 
Noble gases do not obey trend due to the stability they gain from having full othershellsH.
 
Melting Points1.
 
Depends on type of bonding and structure2.
 
Melting points decreases down group 1, they have metallic structures head byattractive forces between delocalized other electrons and positively charged ions.Attraction decreases with distance3.
 
Melting points increases down group 7III.
 
Chemical PropertiesA.
 
Group 0: Noble Gases1.
 
Colorless, monoatomic, unreactive2.
 
Do not form positive ions, as they have highest ionization energies. Do not formnegative ions, as extra electrons added to empty outer shell would experiencenegligible effective nuclear force as protons shield equal number of inner electrons.They all have stable octet.3.
 
Other elements gain or lose electrons as to achieve electron arrangement of nearest noble gasB.
 
Group 1: Alkali Metals1.
 
Too reactive to be found in nature2.
 
Good conductors of electricity, low density, grey shiny surfaces when freshly cut,very reactive, forms ionic compounds with non-metals3.
 
Reaction with Wateri.
 
Reacts with water to produce hydrogen and the metal hydroxideii.
 
Reaction becomes more vigorous as we descend the groupC.
 
Group 7: Halogens1.
 
Exists as diatomic molecules2.
 
Nuclei have high effective charge and exert strong pull on any electron from otheratoms. This electron can occupy outer energy level of the halogen atom andcomplete a stable octet 3.
 
Attraction is greatest for smallest atom fluorine, which is most reactive amonghalogens4.
 
Reactivity decreases down the group, as atomic radius increases, and attraction forother electrons decreases5.
 
Reactions with Alkali Metalsi.
 
Halogens react with alkali metals to form ionic halidesii.
 
Halogens form insoluble salts with silver. Adding solution containing halideto a solution containing silver ions produces a precipitate which is useful inidentifying the halideIV.
 
Trends Across Period 3

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