Decreases down a group, as electron removed is an electron shell furthest from thenucleus. Nuclear charge increase, but effective nuclear charge is about the same, dueto electron shielding, so increased distance reduces attractionG.
strength with which an atom pulls on the electrons it shares in a covalent bond1.
Electronegativity increases from left to right across a period2.
Increase from top to bottom in a group3.
Positively charged nucleus pulls on the other electrons, so the smaller an atom, thehigher the electronegativity4.
Noble gases do not obey trend due to the stability they gain from having full othershellsH.
Depends on type of bonding and structure2.
Melting points decreases down group 1, they have metallic structures head byattractive forces between delocalized other electrons and positively charged ions.Attraction decreases with distance3.
Melting points increases down group 7III.
Group 0: Noble Gases1.
Colorless, monoatomic, unreactive2.
Do not form positive ions, as they have highest ionization energies. Do not formnegative ions, as extra electrons added to empty outer shell would experiencenegligible effective nuclear force as protons shield equal number of inner electrons.They all have stable octet.3.
Other elements gain or lose electrons as to achieve electron arrangement of nearest noble gasB.
Group 1: Alkali Metals1.
Too reactive to be found in nature2.
Good conductors of electricity, low density, grey shiny surfaces when freshly cut,very reactive, forms ionic compounds with non-metals3.
Reaction with Wateri.
Reacts with water to produce hydrogen and the metal hydroxideii.
Reaction becomes more vigorous as we descend the groupC.
Group 7: Halogens1.
Exists as diatomic molecules2.
Nuclei have high effective charge and exert strong pull on any electron from otheratoms. This electron can occupy outer energy level of the halogen atom andcomplete a stable octet 3.
Attraction is greatest for smallest atom fluorine, which is most reactive amonghalogens4.
Reactivity decreases down the group, as atomic radius increases, and attraction forother electrons decreases5.
Reactions with Alkali Metalsi.
Halogens react with alkali metals to form ionic halidesii.
Halogens form insoluble salts with silver. Adding solution containing halideto a solution containing silver ions produces a precipitate which is useful inidentifying the halideIV.
Trends Across Period 3