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IB HL Biology Chapter 2 Notes Cells

IB HL Biology Chapter 2 Notes Cells

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Published by Tiffani Choy

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Published by: Tiffani Choy on Dec 06, 2011
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Cell Theory
Cell Theory
All organisms are composed of one or more cellsii.
Cells are the smallest units of lifeiii.
All cells come from pre-existing cells
Functions of Life
involves all chemical reactions in an organism2.
limited but always evident 3.
involve hereditary molecules that can be passed tooffspring4.
imperative to the survival of the organism5.
maintaining a constant internal environment 6.
providing a source of compounds with many chemical bondswhich can be broken down to provide organism with energy and nutrientsnecessary to maintain lifeb.
Cells and Sizesi.
Cells > organelles > bacteria > viruses > membranes > moleculesc.
Limiting Cell Sizei.
Rate of heat and waste production and the rate of resource consumptions arefunctions of its volumeii.
Cells with more surface area per unit volume are able to move more materials inand out of the cell, for each unit volume of the celliii.
Width of objects increases, surface area also increases but at a much slower rate
 large cells have relatively less surface area to bring in needed material and get rid of wastes.d.
Cell reproduction and Differentiationi.
the result of the expression of certain specific genes but not othersii.
Start out as a single cell after some type of reproduction, that cell has the ability toreproduce at a very rapid rate, then goes through a differentiation processiii.
Some cells have greatly/ completely diminished ability to reproduce afterspecializatione.
Stem Cells
population of cells within organisms that retain their ability to divide anddifferentiate into various type of cellsi.
When stem cells divide to form a specific type of tissue, they also produce somemore cells that remain as stem cellsii.
Stem Cell Treatment and Research1.
Research directed towards growing large numbers of embryonic stem cellsto replace differentiated cells lost due to injury and disease (involvestherapeutic cloning)2.
There are also tissue related stem cells. They reside in certain tissue typesand can only produce ne cells of that particular tissue3.
Ethical and controversial issues
stem cells often obtained from embryos,and the process of gathering stem cells often results in death of embryo.
Prokaryotic Cells
living organism of relatively simple structure characterized by a cytoplasmcontaining dispersed DNA not delimited in a nucleus.a.
Features of a Prokaryotic Celli.
Cell Wall1.
Protects and maintains the shape of the cell, composed of a carbohydrate-protein complex called peptidoglycan.2.
Some have additional layer of polysaccharide outside the cell wallii.
Outer thick layer of complex sugars to increase chances of survivaliii.
Plasma Membrane1.
Controls movement of materials in and out of the celliv.
Flagella and Pili1.
Hair like growth on the outside of cell wall.2.
Pili are used for attachment 3.
Flagella for cell motilityv.
Site of protein synthesis2.
Occurs in large numbers in cells with high protein productionvi.
Nucleoid Region1.
compartmentalized contains single long continuous circular DNA2.
Involved with cell control and reproductionvii.
May help cell adapt to unusual circumstancesviii.
Binary Fission (prokaryotic cell reproduction/division)1.
DNA copied, 2 daughter chromosomes become attached to different regionson membrane2.
Elongation of cell, partition of newly produced DNA by fibers made of protein called FtsZIII.
Eukaryotic Cells
cell containing membrane bound nucleus and membrane bound structuresa.
Organelles of Eukaryotic Cellsi.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
extensive network of tubules or channels that extendsalmost everywhere in the cell from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. Structureenables it to transport material through internal region of the cell1.
Rough ER1.
Associated with protein synthesis and transport 2.
Ribosomes embedded on surface2.
Smooth ER1.
Many unique enzymes embedded on surface2.
Production of membrane phospholipids / cellular lipids3.
Production of sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen4.
Detoxification of drugs in liver5.
Storage of calcium ions6.
Transportation of lipid-based compounds7.
Aid liver in releasing glucose into bloodstreamii.
Organelles occur here2.
Fluid portion of cytoplasm is cytosoliii.
No exterior membrane2.
Carry out protein synthesis3.
Found free in cytoplasm or attached to endoplasmic reticulumiv.
Lysosomes (not usually in plant cells)1.
Intracellular digestive centers that come from Golgi apparatus2.
Lacks internal structures3.
Sacs bound by single membrane that contains different enzymes
 hydrolytic and breaks down protein, nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates4.
Lysosome fuse with old or damaged organelles from within cell to break them down5.
Interior of lysosome are acidicv.
Golgi Apparatus1.
Consist of flattened sacs called
Collection, packaging, modification, distribution of materials synthesized inthe cell3.
Receives products from the ER
the side near the ER is called the
,products move in from that side. Products are discharged on the
side.Small sacs called vesicles can be seen coming off the trans sidevi.
Produce ATP2.
Have their own DNA and a double membrane.3.
Smooth outer membrane with inner membrane folded into cristae.4.
Inside inner membrane is semi-fluid substance called matrix5.
Cristae provide huge internal surface area for chemical reactions to occur6.
Produces and contains own ribosomesvii.
Region where DNA is bordered by double membrane2.
DNA of eukaryotic ells often occurs in the form of chromosomes3.
When not in dividing phase, chromosomes are not present as visiblestructures
re present in the form of chromatin : formed strands of DNA and proteins called histones4.
Nucleosome consists of 8 histones with a strand of DNA wrapped aroundthem and secured with a ninth histone5.
Often located centrally in cytoplasm6.
Molecules of cell ribosomes are manufactured in the nucleolusviii.
Chloroplasts (plant and algal)1.
Double membrane, own DNA (forms a ring), and 70S ribosomes2.
Consists of thylakoids, stroma, and granum (numerous stacked thylakoids)3.
Thylakoids are necessary for absorption of light 4.
Stroma contain enzymes and chemicals to complete process of photosynthesisix.
Consists of pair of centrioles at right angles to one another2.
Involved in assembling microtubules
provides structure and allowingmovement, as well as aiding cell division3.
Located at one end close to the nucleusx.
Storage organelles usually formed from Golgi apparatus

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