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IB HL Biology Photosynthesis Notes

IB HL Biology Photosynthesis Notes

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Published by Tiffani Choy

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Published by: Tiffani Choy on Dec 06, 2011
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03/07/2015

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P
HOTOSYNTHESIS
 
I.
 
Photosynthesis in Generala.
 
Autotrophs use photosynthesis to produce organic compounds form carbon dioxide andwater. The oxygen and glucose produced are then used by cells in cellular respiration, wherecarbon dioxide and water are produced.b.
 
Products of photosynthesis are reactants of cellular respiration. Products of cellularrespiration or reactants of photosynthesisc.
 
Involves two Stagesi.
 
Light reaction
light energy from the sun is converted into chemical energy, whichis temporarily stored in ATP and NADPH, which is the energy carrier moleculeii.
 
Calvin Cycle
organic compounds are formed using CO
2
and the chemical energiesstored in ATP and NADPHd.
 
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O + light energy
C
6
H
12
O
2
+ 6O
2
 II.
 
The Light Reactions (requires light)a.
 
Light and Pigmentsi.
 
White light can be separated into its component colors by passing it through a prism,the resulting colors range from red to violet, and is known as the visible spectrumii.
 
Each color has a different wavelength, measured in nanometers.iii.
 
When white light strikes an object, its component colors can be reflected,transmitted or absorbed by the object.iv.
 
Pigments
compounds that absorb light v.
 
The absorbed colors are removed from the visible spectrum, so the light that isreflected or transmitted back by the pigment no longer appear whiteb.
 
Converting Light Energy to Chemical Energyi.
 
General Overview1.
 
Pigments in chloroplast capture light energy, which is converted intochemical energy and temporarily stored as ATP and NADPH. Oxygen isgiven off as a byproduct 2.
 
Chlorophylls and carotenoids are clustered in in groups of a few hundredpigment molecules in the thylakoid membrane. Group of pigment moleculesand the proteins they are embedded in are called a photosystem. There aretwo type of photosystem I and photosystem II.3.
 
Light reaction begins when accessory pigment molecules in bothphotosystems absorb light. When doing so, they acquire some of the energycarried by the light. In each photosystem, this energy is passed on to otherpigment molecules until it reaches a specific pair of chlorophyll a moleculeswhich can also absorb light ii.
 
Steps1.
 
Light energy forces electrons to enter a higher energy level in chlorophyll amolecules of photosystem II. They are in an excited state and have enoughenergy in order to leave the chlorophyll a molecules2.
 
Primary electron acceptor, a molecule in the thylakoid that the electronsenter3.
 
Primary electron acceptor donates the electron to a series of moleculeswhich transfer electrons from one molecule to the next, known as electron
 
transport chain. As electros move from molecule to molecule in the chain,original energy is lost, which is used to move H
+
protons in the thylakoid.4.
 
Light is absorbed by photosystem I at the same time that light was absorbedby photosystem II. The electrons from the chlorophyll a molecules aremoved to another primary electron acceptor. The electrons lost by thesechlorophyll a molecules are replaced by the electrons that passed throughthe electron transport chain from photosystem II.5.
 
Electrons in photosystem I is excited by light energy and enters anotherelectron transport chain, which bringsthem to the otherside of the thylakoidmembrane.Electrons combinewith a proton andNADP
+
, an organicmolecule that accepts electronsduring redoxreactions, and causesNADP to be reduced to NADPH.iii.
 
Replacing Electrons in Light Reactions1.
 
Electron from chlorophyll molecules in photosystem II replace the electronsthat leave chlorophyll molecules in photosystem I. Replacement electronsare produced by water molecules. Enzyme inside the thylakoid splits watermolecules into protons, electrons, and oxygen.2.
 
2H
2
O
4H
+
+ 4e
-
+ O
2
 3.
 
For every two molecules of water split, four electrons become available toreplace those lost by the chlorophyll molecules in photosystem II. Theprotons produced are left inside the thylakoid, and oxygen diffuses out of chloroplast to leave the plant.iv.
 
Making ATP in Light Reactions1.
 
Chemiosmosis
process during light reactions in which ATP is synthesized,and relies on a concentrated gradient of protons across the thylakoidmembrane.2.
 
Protons are produced by slitting of water molecules or pumped from thestroma to the interior of the thylakoid. Energy required to pump theseprotons are supplied by excited electrons. Concentration of protons ishigher inside the thylakoid than in the stroma3.
 
Concentration gradient represents potential energy, harvested by enzymeATP synthase in thylakoid membrane. It makes ATP by adding a phosphategroup to ADP. ATP synthase converts the potential energy of the protonconcentration gradient into chemical energy stored in ATP

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