his report is the culmination of a project executed with the supportof numerous individuals, including groups of experts gathered in July and September 2010 at the American Enterprise Institute (AEI).Our colleagues at AEI contributed vital assistance, understanding, andanalysis in the completion of this report. We are grateful for their sup-port in this endeavor and for their commitment to further our collec-tive efforts to address a key national security challenge facing ourcountry. In particular, we thank Frederick W. Kagan, Michael Rubin,Gary Schmitt, Ali Alfoneh, Ahmad Majidyar, Katherine Faley, Will Fulton,Grant Gibson, Stephen Gailliot, Lazar Berman, Richard Cleary, LauraShen, and Henry A. Ensher. We would also like to thank the publica-tions staff at AEI for their keen editorial and technical assistance. Asalways, credit belongs to many, but the contents of this report and anyerrors and interpretations are the responsibility of the authors alone.