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A Framing Analysis

A Framing Analysis

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 JMM – Vol. 2 – No. III/IV – 2000
Alan B. Albarran
University of North Texas, U.S.A.
Michael Dowling
University of Regensburg, Germany 
Thomas R. Eisenmann
Harvard Business School, U.S.A.
Peter Glotz
University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
Peter Gomez
University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
Rolf Hoyer
Norwegian School of Management,Norway 
Otfried Jarren
University of Zürich, Switzerland
Eli Noam
Columbia University, Columbia Institutefor Tele-Information, U.S.A.
Robert G. Picard
Turku School of Economicsand Business Administration, Finland
Arnold Picot
Ludwig-Maximilian-Universität München,Germany 
Beat F. Schmid
University of St. Gallen, Switzerland
Michael O. Wirth
University of Denver, U.S.A.
Mark Wössner
Bertelsmann-Foundation, Gütersloh,Germany 
Axel Zerdick
Freie Universität Berlin, Germany 
Editorial Board
Beat F. Schmid, Peter Gomez,Peter Glotz, Dörte WittigBharat RaoPolytechnic University of N.Y., U.S.A.Ruth De Backer, McKinsey& Company, Brussels, BelgiumShahid Akthar,Mahesh Kumar Malla, John GregsonInternational Centre for IntegratedMountain Development,Kathmandu, NepalVictor W. MbarikaLousiana State University, U.S.A.Terry Anthony Byrd, Jennie E.Raymond, Patrick R. McMullenAuburn University, U.S.A.Tadeusz KowalskiWarsaw University, PolandSune TjernströmUmeå School of Businessand Economics, SwedenSanghee KweonSouthern Illinois University,U.S.A.Dan Steinbock Columbia Institute for Tele-Information (CITI), ColumbiaGraduate School of Business, U.S.A.Markus Will and Victor Porak University of St. Gallen,Switzerland
Editors’ Note
The Broadband Debate – Legal and Business ImplicationsTransparency, Accountabilityand Good Governance – Role of New Information andCommunication Technologiesand the Mass MediaInvestments in Telecommuni-cations Infrastructure Are Notthe Panacea for Least DevelopedCountries Leapfrogging Growthof TeledensityMedia Internationalisation – The Case of PolandPublic Service Management – Towards a Theoryof the Media FirmA Framing Analysis: How didthree U.S. News MagazinesFrame about Mergersor Acquisitions?Building Dynamic Capabilities.The Wall Street Journal Inter-active Edition: A successfulOnline Subscription ModelCorporate Communication inthe New Media Environment – A Survey of 150 CorporateCommunication Web Sites
Calendar of EventsImpressum, Order Form
 – Vol. 2 – No. III / IV – 2000
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Dear Reader Welcome to the new issue of JMM – TheInternational Journal on Media Manage-ment.The papers in this issue cluster around legal,regulatory and governmental themes. Weare again happy to be able to present the work of a number of distinguished authors.Each of the contributions allows the readerto gain interesting insights and detailedinformation on different fields of concernin the above topics and within the generalcontext of media management.Broadband Internet infrastructure prom-ises to revolutionize the range and varietyof services available to consumers in access-ing interactive media content. Ruth deBacker and Bharat Rao lead off this issue with an overview of legal and businessissues related to broadband. In their con-tribution they discuss how it will impactfuture innovation in the industry.Shahid Akhtar, Mahesh Kumar Malla and Jon Gregson analyze in their paper the rolenew information and communicationtechnologies (ICTs) can play in achievinggoals such as transparency, accountabilityand good governance. After a short outlineof these concepts, the paper probes intoboth the advantages and disadvantages of the growing utilization of ICTs in the gen-eral framework of globalization and de-mocratization, with a focus on the devel-oping world and the Asian continent. It isargued that by increasingly using ICTs andtaking on a role as spokespeople for civilsociety, the Asian media has the potentialto promote good governance practices and values.It is a known fact that there is a high corre-lation between the level of telecommuni-cation infrastructure represented byteledensity and the level of economicpower represented by GDP per capita. Theproblems and actions for the growth of teledensity in 48 least developed countries(LDCs) are being discussed , as well as theopportunities for utilizing communica-tion technologies to solve prior problemsin those countries. However, the study sub-mitted by Victor W. Mbarika suggests thatincreased investment in telecommunica-tion technologies is not a major factor forgrowth of teledensity; higher GDP andhigher contribution of the service sectorshare to GDP in the least developed coun-tries play a more important role for growthof teledensity.In his article, Tadeusz Kowalski delivers anin-depth examination of what happened tothe media market in Poland in the processof the so called “media internationaliza-tion”. It is an example of the shift from ahighly ideologically motivated concentra-tion into an also high, but mainly capitaldriven concentration. The general develop-ment enabled diversity of expression butas the author points out , “there is no gooddinner free of charge”: there are indica-tions of conglomerates lead by foreign me-dia, for which Poland is only a market of secondary meaning thus bringing alongthe danger of “recycled content”.Drawing on results from a historical studyof the Swedish Broadcasting Corporation,the article written by Sune Tjernströmargues the need to develop present theo-ries of the media firm for media manage-ment research. Doing this, agency theoryis identified as a powerful tool for theanalysis of the behavior in public serviceorganizations.The research paper written by SangheeKweon explores how news magazines deal with mergers and acquisitions in the 1990sunstable social phenomenon. One of manyfindings of examining the coverage of mergers based on types of mergers, govern-ment policy, and news focus of three U.S.magazines was that news organs tend tocover media mergers differently than nonmedia mergers.In his essay “Building Dynamic Capabili-ties”, Dan Steinbock describes the develop-ment of the Wall Street Journal InteractiveEdition. The paper aims to explain why the WSJE was able to launch and stabilize a suc-cessful subscription model, a feat thatmost of its direct and indirect rivals havefailed to accomplish.In the new media environment, communi-cation has become an even more impor-tant factor for a company’s success. Thisissue of JMM is rounded out with a papersubmitted by Markus Will and VictorPorak. Using a survey of 150 corporate com-munication web sites, they examine thequestion whether known offline commu-nication models are also used for onlinecommunication. In addition, it is shownthat in corporate communication websites, content is distributed using a classi-cal target group rather than a communitydriven approach. We hope you will enjoy this collection of contributions. The JMM Editorial Teamgives heartfelt thanks to all those whohelped to make this journal a successfuland internationally known publicationsince its foundation one year ago. We areproud of the JMM‘s success and will giveour best to provide our readers with inter-esting new findings in this research areain the future as we did in the past.
 Beat F. Schmid Peter Glotz Peter Gomez Dörte Wittig 
 JMM – The International Journal on Media Management
 – Vol. 2 – No. III / IV – 2000
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A Framing Analysis:How Did Three U.S. News MagazinesFrame about Mergers or Acquisitions?
by Sanghee Kweon, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, U.S.A.
Media researchers have long recognizedthat journalists play a pivotal role inthe social construction of reality.Lippmann (1922) stated that the newsmedia construct a picture of reality forthe audience both in agenda settingand priming. “[T]he picture inside theheads of these human beings, the pic-tures of themselves, of their needs, pur-poses, and relationship, are their pub-lic opinion (1922: p.29).”Carey also noted “the press collaboratesin the quest for meaning while inno-cently reporting the news” (1986:p.193). Journalists are the sense-makers,not only informing the public but alsoproviding a context to help people weave isolated events into their existingconcept of reality. Yet, as Carey observed, that contextdepends less upon the nature of real-ity than journalistic traditions. “[T]hestories written by journalists manifestthe reality-making practices of thecraft rather than some objective world”(p.159). When news media confront a newtrend or development in society, theyperform a service by manufacturing afixed, representation, and stable world. When confronted with a new trend,technology, or development, the newsmedia go about this manufacturingreality called “reality making.” Theyproceeded in this “reality-making”based on various organizational con-straints.erage between media and non-mediamergers will be compared as eitherequal-voice or biased. When govern-ment policy is changed, is the newsmedia voice toward mergers positive ornegative? Finally, this study comparesthe coverage of the three news-magazines: Fortune, Newsweek, andU.S. News & World Report. Thereforethis study assumes the tone andfrequencies will depend on three fac-tors: merger types, social or govern-ment policy, and the organization’s fo-cused area and topic.The second-level question is how newsmagazines covered the dimensions of news for mergers from various newsformats and news orientations. Morespecifically, this study will comparedifferences between issue- and event-related coverage for mergers, and howmany illustrations the news has. Tofigure out the frame level, this paperuses several broad concepts as variables.This paper is coded two ways: the use of positive and negative terms and the em-phasis “issue oriented” which is relatedto the thematic presentation or “eventoriented,” which is related episodically.Iyenger (1991) found two types of fram-ing, “episodic and thematic.” Accordingto his research, television news providesone or the other of these types of framesof reference when reporting politicalissues. The episodic news frame is takenfrom a case study or event-orientedreport (accident or crime), whereas thethematic frame places public issues insome more general or abstract context(social welfare or government policy).Finally, this paper will find out wherethe news’ geographical locations are.The three U.S. new magazines focusglobal mergers or U.S. and how thenews location affects the tone anddirection.
Significance of the Study
This study explores the existence of themerger as a social phenomenon in themedia’s handling of mergers or acqui-
Mergers in 1990s
More and more, business and mediaorganizations have become subsidiariesof conglomerate ownership. Thus,mergers are the 1990s’ new businessand economic trend under the newlogic of capitalism (Chan-Olmsted,1998). The mergers of ownership inmedia and general business have beengrowing and are expected to continue.Therefore, the news media devoted con-siderable space and time to the cover-age of merger news. A brief reading of the sampled merger news for the lastsix years has borne sufficient supportof this phenomenon, but questionsremain whether news media criticizeor support the mergers or acquisitionphenomenon. The relationship betweennews media’s coverage and social phe-nomenon is a serious topic in mass com-munication studies.
Asking Questions
How did U.S. news media cover mergersor acquisitions as a significant socialphenomenon? How did the news mediacover the mergers and acquisitions?Using this perspective, this paper willfocus on the news media coverage of mergers. A literature review will showthat the media mergers in the 1990s area critical turning point to the mediaconglomerate ownership as followingnew economic trends.The question arises whether Journal-ists’ coverage and attitudes are positiveor negative toward mergers as socialphenomena. And then, the merger cov-

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