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Lesson 5.2 Light

Lesson 5.2 Light

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Published by Rais Rahimi

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Published by: Rais Rahimi on Dec 07, 2011
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02/24/2012

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LESSON 2 –Understandingrefraction of light
What is meant by ‘ Refraction’
Refraction of light is a phenomenonwhere the direction and speed of lightare changed ( change in velocity)when it crosses the boundry betweentwo materials of different opticaldensities. 
Three ways in which a ray cantravel through two mediums
1When a ray of light travelsfrom optically less densemedium to optically densermedium , the ray is benttowards the normal.After entering the densermedium the speed of lightdecreases. 2When a ray of light travelsfrom optically densermedium to optically lessdense medium , the ray isbent away from the normal.After entering the less densemedium the speed of lightincreases.
3
When a ray of light crossesthe boundry between two differentmediums at a right angle or theincident ray parallel to normal, theray is not bentbut the speed of light isdifferent. The angles of incidence andrefraction are zero. 
Common terminology of refractionof lightbetween two medium of differentoptical densities
Normal : A line at rightangles to theboundry of thesurface of the medium.Incident ray:A ray of light thatis directedonto to the boundry of the surface of themediumReflected ray:A ray that isrefracted when passingthrough the differentmedium.Angle of :The angle betweenthe incidentincidenceray and thenormal
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Angle of :The angle betweenthe refractedrefractionray and thenormal 
The law of refraction
 The first law:The ratio of thesine of the angle( Snell’s Law)of incidence to the sineof the angle orefraction is constant. The second law:The incident ray,the normal andthe refracted ray alllie in thesame plane
Refractive index (n)
Refractive index,n is defined as, where n = Refractive indexi = the angle in mediumless denser = the angle in densermedium
A material with a higherrefractive index has ahigher density.
 The value of refractiveindex , n
1
 The refractive index has nounits. The refrective index can be alsodefined as ,And
Example 1
 The diagram shows a ray of lightpassing from air to the block X.Calculate the refractive index of the block X.
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n =sin in = speed of light invacuum (air)speed of light inmedium
 
 
n = RealdepthApparenth depthOr
 
SolutionExample 2
 The diagram shows a ray of lightpassing from a glass block to air.[ Refractive index of glass = 1.54 ]Determine the value of the angle
θ
.
Solutio nExample 3
 The diagram shows a light rayentering in a glass prism.[ Refractive index of glass = 1.51 ]
 
Draw the ray light after it passesthrough a point P and determinethe angle of refraction when theray light entering the air again.
SolutionExample 4
 The speed of light in vacuum is 3 x10
8
ms
-1
and the speed of light inglass is 2 x 10
8
ms
-1
. Determinethe refractive index of glass.
SolutionExample 5
 The apparent depth of a fish is0.50 m. Calculate the real depth of the fish.[ Refractive index of water = 1.33)
SolutionExample 6
 The figure shows an manobserving the base of a swimmingpool . The base of the pool appearto be shallower. The real depth of the swimmingpool is 2.0 m.[ Refractive index of water =1.33 ]
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