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Amnesty Intl on Niger Delta

Amnesty Intl on Niger Delta

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Published by: NRF_Vancouver on Dec 07, 2011
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12/07/2011

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NIGERIA: PETROLEUM,POLLUTION AND POVERTYIN THE NIGER DELTA
 
Amnesty International is a global movement of 2.2 million people in more than150 countries and territories who campaign to end grave abuses of human rights.Our vision is for every person to enjoy all the rights enshrined in the UniversalDeclaration of Human Rights and other international human rights standards.We are independent of any government, political ideology, economic interestor religion – funded mainly by our membership and public donations.
Amnesty International PublicationsFirst published in 2009 byAmnesty International PublicationsInternational SecretariatPeter Benenson House1 Easton StreetLondon WC1X 0DWUnited Kingdomwww.amnesty.org© Amnesty International Publications 2009Index: AFR 44/017/2009Original language: EnglishPrinted by Amnesty International,International Secretariat, United KingdomAll rights reserved. This publication is copyright, butmay be reproduced by any method without fee foradvocacy, campaigning and teaching purposes, but notfor resale. The copyright holders request that all such usebe registered with them for impact assessment purposes.For copying in any other circumstances, or for re-use inother publications, or for translation or adaptation, priorwritten permission must be obtained from the publishers,and a fee may be payable.
Front cover photo 
: The impact of oil pollution in Ikot AdaUdo, Akwa Ibom State, Niger Delta, Nigeria, 30 January2008. © Kadir van Lohuizen
Back cover photos from top 
: Oil at Ikarama, BayelsaState, March 2008, eight months after the spill. Thereare often long delays in clearing up after oil spills in theNiger Delta. © Amnesty International; The effects of anoil spill on water near the community of Goi, Ogoniland,January 2008. The spill occurred six months earlier inJuly 2007. © Kadir van Lohuizen; A gas flare at UghelliWest, Delta State, January 2008. These flares have longbeen recognized as harmful to the environment. Morerecently, communities and NGOs have raised concernsabout the impact of gas flaring on human health. © Kadirvan Lohuizen
 
 
CONTENTS
Section I
......................................................................................................................7
 
1.
 
Introduction......................................................................................................................................................7
 
1.1.
 
Background............................................................................................................................................9
 
1.2.
 
The oil industry in the niger delta........................................................................................................11
 
1.3.
 
Pollution and human rights.................................................................................................................12
 
2.
 
Pollution and environmental damage in the niger delta................................................................................14
 
2.1.
 
Oil spills...............................................................................................................................................14
 
2.2.
 
Disposal of waste.................................................................................................................................17
 
2.3.
 
Gas flaring...........................................................................................................................................18
 
2.4.
 
Seismic surveys and the construction of roads and pipelines.............................................................18
 
2.5.
 
Dredging..............................................................................................................................................19
 
2.6.
 
Inadequate clean up prolongs problems..............................................................................................19
 
2.7.
 
Cumulative impact...............................................................................................................................20
 
Section II......................................................................................................................................................................21
 
3.
 
The human rights impacts of oil pollution.....................................................................................................21
 
3.1.
 
Pollution of water bodies......................................................................................................................25
 
3.2.
 
Damage to fisheries.............................................................................................................................26
 
3.3.
 
Damage to farms and natural resources.............................................................................................30
 
3.4.
 
The right to food...................................................................................................................................32
 
3.5.
 
The rights to work and to an adequate standard of living...................................................................34
 
3.6.
 
The right to health and the right to a healthy environment.................................................................34
 
4.
 
Evading responsibility....................................................................................................................................39
 
4.1.
 
The state’s duty to protect...................................................................................................................39
 
4.2.
 
The absentee government: failure to protect rights.............................................................................40
 
4.3.
 
Corporate responsibility.......................................................................................................................56
 
Section III.....................................................................................................................................................................64
 
5.
 
Access to justice and the right to remedy......................................................................................................64
 
5.1.
 
Clean up of oil spills............................................................................................................................65
 
5.2.
 
Remediation.........................................................................................................................................68
 
5.3.
 
Financial compensation.......................................................................................................................70
 
5.4.
 
Court actions........................................................................................................................................74
 
5.5.
 
Other aspects of remedy......................................................................................................................78
 
6.
 
Conclusions....................................................................................................................................................79
 
7.
 
Recommendations..........................................................................................................................................82
 
7.1.
 
To the President and the National Assembly.........................................................................................82
 
7.2.
 
To the National Assembly......................................................................................................................84
 
7.3.
 
To companies........................................................................................................................................84
 
7.4 .
 
To governments of home states............................................................................................................86
 
ENDNOTES....................................................................................................................................................................87
 
Appendix 1.................................................................................................................................................................109
 
Appendix 2.................................................................................................................................................................119
 
Appendix 3.................................................................................................................................................................122
 
Appendix 4.................................................................................................................................................................139
 

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