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IGSCE+Revision+Notes

IGSCE+Revision+Notes

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I.G.C.S.E.MathematicsExtension LevelRevision Notes
June 2008
 
Primes, Factors, Powers and Standard Form..................................................................................7
Prime numbers......................................................................................................................................................................7Factors..................................................................................................................................................................................7Prime Factors........................................................................................................................................................................7Common Factors and Highest Common Factor...................................................................................................................8Multiples...............................................................................................................................................................................8Common Multiples and Lowest Common Multiple.............................................................................................................8Square numbers....................................................................................................................................................................8Triangular numbers...............................................................................................................................................................9Square roots and prime factors.............................................................................................................................................9Indices (Powers)..................................................................................................................................................................9Standard Form....................................................................................................................................................................10Converting from standard form to an ‘ordinary number’...................................................................................................10Converting TO standard form.............................................................................................................................................10Combining numbers in standard form................................................................................................................................11
Introduction to Algebra....................................................................................................................11
Substituting in formulae.....................................................................................................................................................11Simplifying expressions and brackets................................................................................................................................11Solving equations...............................................................................................................................................................12Re-arranging formulae........................................................................................................................................................13English statements and equivalent mathematical expressions...........................................................................................14Forming equations..............................................................................................................................................................14Inequalities..........................................................................................................................................................................15
Miscellaneous Number....................................................................................................................15
Long Multiplication............................................................................................................................................................15Long Division.....................................................................................................................................................................16Fractions - proper, mixed, and improper fractions.........................................................................................................16
Converting from mixed fractions to top heavy fractions..............................................................................................................................................16Converting from top heavy fractions to mixed fractions..............................................................................................................................................16Adding and subtracting fractions..................................................................................................................................................................................16Reciprocals....................................................................................................................................................................................................................17Multiplying and dividing fractions...............................................................................................................................................................................17Converting a decimal to a fraction................................................................................................................................................................................18Fractions and recurring decimals..................................................................................................................................................................................18
 Negative numbers...............................................................................................................................................................18Rounding off to the nearest ...............................................................................................................................................19Rough approximations........................................................................................................................................................19
Sequences........................................................................................................................................19
Sequences from rules..........................................................................................................................................................20Standard sequences.............................................................................................................................................................20
Perimeters and Areas......................................................................................................................21
Perimeter.............................................................................................................................................................................21Area....................................................................................................................................................................................21
Volumes and Surface Areas............................................................................................................22
Surface Areas......................................................................................................................................................................22Volumes..............................................................................................................................................................................22
Prisms............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22Pyramids........................................................................................................................................................................................................................22
Converting Units.................................................................................................................................................................23
Lengths .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................23Areas.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23Volumes........................................................................................................................................................................................................................23
Statistics 1........................................................................................................................................24
Mode, median and range....................................................................................................................................................24Median, quartiles and interquartile range...........................................................................................................................24Mean...................................................................................................................................................................................25Frequency tables and tally charts........................................................................................................................................25
07/12/11 IGCSE Extension Level Revision SDB
2
 
Bar chartsand line graphs...................................................................................................................................................26Histograms .........................................................................................................................................................................26Pie charts.............................................................................................................................................................................27Finding the mode and mean from a grouped frequency table............................................................................................28Surveys, questionnaires and sampling................................................................................................................................29
Percentages......................................................................................................................................29
Percentages as fractions and decimals................................................................................................................................29Finding a percentage of a given number............................................................................................................................29Percentage increases and decreases....................................................................................................................................30Finding the original number after a percentage change.....................................................................................................30Simple interest....................................................................................................................................................................30Compound increases or decreases......................................................................................................................................30Expressing one number as a percentage of another............................................................................................................31
Geometry..........................................................................................................................................31
Angle properties.................................................................................................................................................................31
Acute, obtuse and reflex angles....................................................................................................................................................................................31Angles on a line, vertically opposite and round a point................................................................................................................................................32Parallel lines..................................................................................................................................................................................................................32
Bearings..............................................................................................................................................................................32Angles of elevation and depression....................................................................................................................................33Triangles.............................................................................................................................................................................33
Angles in a triangle add up to 180o..............................................................................................................................................................................33Exterior angle equals sum of the two interior opposite angles.....................................................................................................................................33Equilateral and isosceles triangles................................................................................................................................................................................34
Congruence.........................................................................................................................................................................34Quadrilaterals......................................................................................................................................................................35
Special quadrilaterals....................................................................................................................................................................................................35
Polygons.............................................................................................................................................................................36Regular polygons................................................................................................................................................................36
Sets...................................................................................................................................................36
Set Notation........................................................................................................................................................................36Venn diagrams....................................................................................................................................................................37
Functions..........................................................................................................................................37
 Notation..............................................................................................................................................................................37Composite functions...........................................................................................................................................................37Inverse functions.................................................................................................................................................................38
Transformations...............................................................................................................................38
Translations........................................................................................................................................................................38
Combining translations.................................................................................................................................................................................................39
Rotations.............................................................................................................................................................................39
Finding the centre of rotation........................................................................................................................................................................................39.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................39
Reflections..........................................................................................................................................................................39Enlargements .....................................................................................................................................................................39
Positive scale factor......................................................................................................................................................................................................39Fraction scale factor......................................................................................................................................................................................................40 Negative scale factor ....................................................................................................................................................................................................40
Pythagoras........................................................................................................................................40Ratio..................................................................................................................................................41
Sharing in the ratio of two numbers...................................................................................................................................41Sharing in the ratio of three numbers.................................................................................................................................41Map Scales..........................................................................................................................................................................41
Trigonometry 1.................................................................................................................................42
SOH CAH TOA............................................................................................................................................................................................................42
The awkward case, x on the denominator........................................................................................................................42
Quadratic functions & factorising...................................................................................................43
Multiplying out two brackets - F O I L...........................................................................................................................43
07/12/11 IGCSE Extension Level Revision SDB
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