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AC Lab Manual for Ece

# AC Lab Manual for Ece

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03/21/2013

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Expt. No:Date:AMPLITUDE MODULATION & DEMODULATIONAIM:
To generate the amplitude modulated waveform with different modulationindices and demodulate the same.
EQUIPMENT:
1. A.M Trainer Kit2. Dual trace C.R.O3. Signal generator4. Connecting leads
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

THEORY:
Modulation is the process by which the characteristics of the carrier wave is varied oraltered in accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of modulating signal. Modulatingsignal, usually low frequency signal or audio frequency (A.F). signal means the signal to bemodulated, i.e. message signal. The message signal contains some useful information. Thecarrier signal is (usually high frequency signal or radio frequency signal) used to carry themodulating signal. Let a sinusoidal wave in analog modulation be given as
)sin()(
θ ω
+=
A
cc
where A

= amplitude of the carrier signal
c
ω
= angular frequency
θ
= phase angleAny one of these parameters may be varied in accordance with the baseband or messagesignal.
AMPLITUDE MODULATION:
Amplitude modulation is the process by which the amplitude of the carrier signal isvaried in accordance with the instantaneous value of the modulating signal, but frequency andphase of the carrier wave remain constant.Let
)(
m
and
)(
c
represent the modulating and carrier voltages respectively.
mmm
ω
sin)(
=

ccc
ω
sin)(
=
Here
m
and
c
denote the maximum amplitudes of the modulating and carrier signalsrespectively. The amplitude of the carrier signal is changed after modulation as follows:
mmc AM
ω
sin)(
+=

)sin1(
mcmc
ω
+=

)sin1(
m
mac
ω
+=

a
m
is defined as the modulation index or depth of modulation.The instantaneous amplitude of the modulated signal is
c AM  AM
ω
sin)(
=

m
cmac AM
ω ω
sin)sin1()(
+=
=
m
cmcacc
ω ω ω
sinsinsin
+
=
m
mcmc cacc
)cos()cos( 2sin
ω ω ω ω ω
++
The above equation represents the amplitude-modulated wave. The 1
st
term representsthe carrier wave. The 2
nd
and 3
rd
terms are identical and are called as lower side band (LSB)and upper side band (USB) respectively.

DEGREES OF MODULATION:
The modulating signal is preserved in the envelope of amplitude modulated signalonly if
cm
<
. There are three degrees of modulation depending upon the amplitude of themessage signal relative to the carrier amplitude.
Under modulation:
In this case
1
<
a
m
, i.e
cm
<
. Here the envelope of amplitudemodulated signal does not reach the zero amplitude axis. Hence the message signal is fullypreserved in the envelope of the AM wave. This is known as under modulation. An envelopedetector can recover the message signal without any distortion.
Critical Modulation:
In this case
1
=
a
m
, i.e
cm
=
. Here the envelope of the modulatedsignal just reaches the zero amplitude axis. The message signal remains preserved. This isknown as critical modulation. In this case also the modulated signal can be recovered using anenvelope detector without any distortion.
Over Modulation:
In this case
1
>
a
m
, i.e.
cm
>
. In this case the amplitude of modulatingsignal is greater than carrier amplitude. Therefore a portion of the envelope of the modulatedsignal crosses the zero axis. In this case, the envelope detector cannot recover the messagesignal exactly from the envelope. Clipping is observed in the detected signal. This is calledenvelope distortion. Due to this envelope detector provides distorted message signal.Percentage of modulation is defined as
100mod%
minmaxminmax
×+=
ulation
. Generally it isdesirable to keep the percent of modulation high. For a given transmitter power, a highpercent of modulation will produce a stronger audio tone in the receiver.
DEMODUALTION:
Demodulation or detection is the process by which the modulating voltage isrecovered from the modulated signal. In an AM envelope, the carrier amplitude hassymmetrical variations in its positive and negative half cycles of modulating voltage. As theenvelope is symmetrical, the mean value of the detected current becomes zero. For detectionpurpose, non linear devices are used which make the modulated wave unsymmetrical, eitherby wiping (clipping) out any one half cycle or by making positive and negative half cyclesunequal.
PROCEDURE:
1. Turn on the trainer and adjust the oscilloscope trigger controls for stable display.2. Measure the period of the carrier wave generated by XR2206 and calculate thefrequency.3. Patch the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. Connect 200Hz sine wave fromaudio oscillator to input of the modulator i.e. to one end of the 100K
potentiometer
1
R
.Patch the output of XR2206 to one end of 10K
potentiometer
2
R
. Keep
2
R
to itsmaximum position.