MK-Ultra: The CIA and Radiation
Interim Report of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments
Appendix, pp. E-1.1 to 1.6
Courtesy of PinkNoise
History and Organization of the Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was created in 1947 by the National Security Act, which alsoestablished the Department of Defense (DOD) and the National Security Council (NSC). CIA wasmodeled largely after the Office of Strategic Services, which served as the principal U.S. intelligenceorganization during World War II. The newly created agency was authorized to engage in foreignintelligence collection (i.e., espionage). analysis. and covert actions, it was, however, prohibited fromengaging in domestic police or internal security functions. Nonetheless, CIA engaged in a program of domestic human experimentation from the 1950s into the 1970s.CIA components most likely to have. been associated with any experiment are the Office of ScientificIntelligence (OSI) in the Directorate of Intelligence, the Office of Security, the Technical ServicesDivision (TSD) in the then-Directorate of Plans (DDP, now Directorate of Operations), and (at leastfrom 1962) the Office of Research and Development (ORD) in the Directorate of Science andTechnology. Beginning in the late 1940s, OSI analyzed and disseminated foreign scientific, andmedical intelligence concerning the development and testing of atomic weapons and interacted withDOD and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) on these issues. TSD ran Project MKULTRA,discussed below. Human experimentation was done prior to MKULTRA by OSI and the Office of Security and, after MKULTRA, by ORD.
To date, CIA has found no records or other information indicating that it conducted or sponsoredhuman radiation experiments.
In response to the January 1994 presidential directive, CIA conducted an agency-wide search forinformation about human radiation experiments that it may have conducted.
[ 1 ]
At the Committee'sinitial meeting in April 1994, CIA stated that the search encompassed an electronic review of approximately 34 million documents, a manual review of 480,300 documents, and nearly 50interviews. CIA also stated that it had found no documents relating to experiments conducted byother agencies. The Committee, however, has since found records indicating that CIA officers didparticipate in DOD groups in which human radiation experiments, including those involving theplacement of troops at atmospheric weapons tests, were discussed and planned. As discussed below,CIA is continuing to search for documents relating to these and other activities.Beginning in the early 1950s, CIA engaged in an extensive program of human experimentation, usingdrugs, psychological. and other means in search of techniques to control human behavior CIA has sofar found no evidence that radiation experiments on humans were part of this program. CIAdocuments and a 1963 CIA Inspector General (IG) report. however state quite clearlythat .MKULTRA was a program "concerned with research and development of chemical. biological.and
materials capable of employment in clandestine operations to control humanbehavior." (emphasis added) The IG report states that "additional avenues to the control of humanbehavior had been designated . . as appropriate to investigation under the MKULTRA charter,including
, electroshock. various fields of psychology, sociology, and anthropology,graphology, harassment substances, and paramilitary devices and materials." (emphasis added)
[ 2 ]
The program included unwitting experimentation on humans with LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide),brainwashing, and other interrogation methods.CIA's human behavior program originated in 1950 and was motivated by Soviet, Chinese, and NorthKorean use of mind control techniques. It began under the code name BLUEBIRD (and was laterknown as ARTICHOKE) and was operated by the Office of Security and OSI with support fromother offices. MKULTRA formally began in April 1953 as a special, clandestine funding mechanismfor DOD human behavior research. The program was the subject of investigations by the RockefellerCommission in 1975, the Senate Church Committee in 1976, and hearings by Senator Kennedy in1975 and 1977, however, these committees did not focus on radiation experiments, and no suchinformation was found by them.