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12/09/2011

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Flavors of GeometryMSRI PublicationsVolume

31

, 1997

An Elementary Introductionto Modern Convex Geometry

KEITH BALL

Contents

Preface 1Lecture 1. Basic Notions 2Lecture 2. Spherical Sections of the Cube 8Lecture 3. Fritz John’s Theorem 13Lecture 4. Volume Ratios and Spherical Sections of the Octahedron 19Lecture 5. The Brunn–Minkowski Inequality and Its Extensions 25Lecture 6. Convolutions and Volume Ratios: The Reverse IsoperimetricProblem 32Lecture 7. The Central Limit Theorem and Large Deviation Inequalities 37Lecture 8. Concentration of Measure in Geometry 41Lecture 9. Dvoretzky’s Theorem 47Acknowledgements 53References 53Index 55

Preface

These notes are based, somewhat loosely, on three series of lectures given bymyself, J. Lindenstrauss and G. Schechtman, during the Introductory Workshopin Convex Geometry held at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute inBerkeley, early in 1996. A fourth series was given by B. Bollob´as, on rapidmixing and random volume algorithms; they are found elsewhere in this book.The material discussed in these notes is not, for the most part, very new, butthe presentation has been strongly inﬂuenced by recent developments: amongother things, it has been possible to simplify many of the arguments in the lightof later discoveries. Instead of giving a comprehensive description of the state of the art, I have tried to describe two or three of the more important ideas thathave shaped the modern view of convex geometry, and to make them as accessible

1

2 KEITH BALL

as possible to a broad audience. In most places, I have adopted an informal stylethat I hope retains some of the spontaneity of the original lectures. Needless tosay, my fellow lecturers cannot be held responsible for any shortcomings of thispresentation.I should mention that there are large areas of research that fall under thevery general name of convex geometry, but that will barely be touched upon inthese notes. The most obvious such area is the classical or “Brunn–Minkowski”theory, which is well covered in [Schneider 1993]. Another noticeable omission isthe combinatorial theory of polytopes: a standard reference here is [Brøndsted1983].

Lecture 1. Basic Notions

The topic of these notes is convex geometry. The objects of study are con-vex bodies: compact, convex subsets of Euclidean spaces, that have nonemptyinterior. Convex sets occur naturally in many areas of mathematics: linear pro-gramming, probability theory, functional analysis, partial diﬀerential equations,information theory, and the geometry of numbers, to name a few.Although convexity is a simple property to formulate, convex bodies possessa surprisingly rich structure. There are several themes running through thesenotes: perhaps the most obvious one can be summed up in the sentence: “Allconvex bodies behave a bit like Euclidean balls.” Before we look at some ways inwhich this is true it is a good idea to point out ways in which it deﬁnitely is not.This lecture will be devoted to the introduction of a few basic examples that weneed to keep at the backs of our minds, and one or two well known principles.The only notational conventions that are worth specifying at this point arethe following. We will use

|·|

to denote the standard Euclidean norm on

R

n

. Fora body

K

, vol(

K

) will mean the volume measure of the appropriate dimension.The most fundamental principle in convexity is the

Hahn–Banach separation theorem

, which guaranteesthat each convex body is an intersection of half-spaces,and that at each point of the boundary of a convex body, there is at least onesupporting hyperplane. More generally, if

K

and

L

are disjoint, compact, convexsubsets of

R

n

, then there is a linear functional

φ

:

R

n

→

R

for which

φ

(

x

)

< φ

(

y

)whenever

x

∈

K

and

y

∈

L

.The simplest example of a convex body in

R

n

is the cube, [

−

1

,

1]

n

. This doesnot look much like the Euclidean ball. The largest ball inside the cube has radius1, while the smallest ball containing it has radius

√

n

, since the corners of thecube are this far from the origin. So, as the dimension grows, the cube resemblesa ball less and less.The second example to which we shall refer is the

n

-dimensional regular solidsimplex: the convex hull of

n

+1 equally spaced points. For this body, the ratioof the radii of inscribed and circumscribed balls is

n

: even worse than for thecube. The two-dimensional case is shown in Figure 1. In Lecture 3 we shall see

AN ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO MODERN CONVEX GEOMETRY 3

Figure 1.

Inscribed and circumscribed spheres for an

n

-simplex.

that these ratios are extremal in a certain well-deﬁned sense.Solid simplices are particular examples of cones. By a

cone

in

R

n

we just meanthe convex hull of a single point and some convex body of dimension

n

−

1 (Figure2). In

R

n

, the volume of a cone of height

h

over a base of (

n

−

1)-dimensionalvolume

B

is

Bh/n

.The third example, which we shall investigate more closely in Lecture 4, is the

n

-dimensional “octahedron”, or

cross-polytope:

the convex hull of the 2

n

points(

±

1

,

0

,

0

,...,

0), (0

,

±

1

,

0

,...,

0), ..., (0

,

0

,...,

0

,

±

1). Since this is the unit ballof the

1

norm on

R

n

, we shall denote it

B

n

1

. The circumscribing sphere of

B

n

1

has radius 1, the inscribed sphere has radius 1

/

√

n

; so, as for the cube, the ratiois

√

n

: see Figure 3, left.

B

n

1

is made up of 2

n

pieces similar to the piece whose points have nonnegativecoordinates, illustrated in Figure 3, right. This piece is a cone of height 1 overa base, which is the analogous piece in

R

n

−

1

. By induction, its volume is1

n

·

1

n

−

1

·····

12

·

1 =1

n

!

,

and hence the volume of

B

n

1

is 2

n

/n

!.

Figure 2.

A cone.

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