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R-introduction

R-introduction

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Published by: Vijay kumar Gupta .C on Oct 25, 2008
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An Introduction to R
Notes on R: A Programming Environment or Data Analysis and GraphicsVersion 2.8.0 (2008-10-20)
W. N. Venables, D. M. Smithand the R Development Core Team
 
Copyrightc
1990 W. N. VenablesCopyrightc
1992 W. N. Venables & D. M. SmithCopyrightc
1997 R. Gentleman & R. IhakaCopyrightc
1997, 1998 M. MaechlerCopyrightc
1999–2006 R Development Core TeamPermission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies o this manual provided the copy-right notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.Permission is granted to copy and distribute modied versions o this manual under the condi-tions or verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is distributed underthe terms o a permission notice identical to this one.Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations o this manual into another language,under the above conditions or modied versions, except that this permission notice may bestated in a translation approved by the R Development Core Team.ISBN 3-900051-12-7
 
i
Table o Contents
Preace
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 Introduction and preliminaries
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2
1.1 The R environment
................................................................
21.2 Related sotware and documentation
...............................................
21.3 R and statistics
....................................................................
21.4 R and the window system
.........................................................
31.5 Using R interactively
..............................................................
31.6 An introductory session
............................................................
41.7 Getting help with unctions and eatures
...........................................
41.8 R commands, case sensitivity, etc.
.................................................
41.9 Recall and correction o previous commands
.......................................
51.10 Executing commands rom or diverting output to a le
............................
51.11 Data permanency and removing objects
...........................................
5
2 Simple manipulations; numbers and vectors
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
2.1 Vectors and assignment
............................................................
72.2 Vector arithmetic
..................................................................
72.3 Generating regular sequences
......................................................
82.4 Logical vectors
....................................................................
92.5 Missing values
.....................................................................
92.6 Character vectors
................................................................
102.7 Index vectors; selecting and modiying subsets o a data set
.......................
102.8 Other types o objects
............................................................
3 Objects, their modes and attributes
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Intrinsic attributes: mode and length
.............................................
133.2 Changing the length o an object
.................................................
143.3 Getting and setting attributes
....................................................
143.4 The class o an object
............................................................
4 Ordered and unordered actors
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 A specic example
................................................................
164.2 The unction
tapply()
and ragged arrays
.........................................
164.3 Ordered actors
..................................................................
5 Arrays and matrices
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1 Arrays
...........................................................................
185.2 Array indexing. Subsections o an array
..........................................
185.3 Index matrices
...................................................................
195.4 The
array()
unction
............................................................
205.4.1 Mixed vector and array arithmetic. The recycling rule
........................
205.5 The outer product o two arrays
..................................................
215.6 Generalized transpose o an array
.................................................
215.7 Matrix acilities
..................................................................
225.7.1 Matrix multiplication
........................................................

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