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Published by Nur Faezah

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Nur Faezah on Dec 10, 2011
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10.1 NUCLEUS OF AN ATOMDescribe thecompositionof thenucleus of anatom in termsof protonsand neutrons
Matter is made up of very small particles calledatoms
Each atom has a very small and very dense corecalled nucleus. Most of the mass of atom iscontained in the nucleus
The electrons move in orbits around the nucleus.
There are a lot of empty spaces within atom
A nucleus consists of a number of protons andneutrons.
Protons and neutrons also known as nucleons.
A proton has a unit positive charge.
A neutron is an uncharged particle of about thesame mass as the proton.
An atom is neutral because it contains an equalnumber of negatively charged electrons. So the netcharge is zero.Define protonnumber (Z)Proton number, Z, is defined as the number of protonsin a nucleusThe number of electrons = the number of protonsAn element is identified by its proton numberDefinenucleonnumber (A)Nucleon number, A is defined as the total number ofprotons and neutrons in a nucleus.Number of neutrons, N = A - ZWhat isnuclideA nuclide is an atom of a particular structure. Eachelement has nucleus with a specific number ofprotons.Nuclidenotation
 A Z 
AX A = nucleon numberZ Z = proton numberX = chemical symbol of the elementExample
Proton number of carbon = 6, carbon nucleus has 6protons. The nucleon number of carbon is 12. So thenumber of neutrons in carbon nucleus is 12 – 6 = 6
tritiumIsotopes are atoms with the same proton number butdifferent nucleon number.
Isotopes of an element contain the same number ofprotons and the same number of electrons. Soisotopes have the same chemical propertieschemical reactions involve the electrons in anatom.
However they have different physical propertiesbecause their mass is different.
Some isotopes exist naturally. Isotopes can alsobe made artificially.10.2 RADIOACTIVE DECAYState whatradioactivityIsRadioactivity
spontaneousprocess3 differenttypes ofradiationRadioactivity is the spontaneous and randomdisintegration (decay) of an unstable nucleusaccompanied by the emission of energetic particlesor photons.
The nuclei of some atoms are unstable. Thenucleus of an unstable atom will decay to becomemore stable by emitting radiation in the form of aparticle or electromagnetic radiation.
Random process means there is no way to tellwhich nucleus will decay, and cannot predictwhen it is going to decay.
A spontaneous process means the process is nottriggered by any external factors such astemperature of pressure.
Gamma radiation
Compare the 3 kinds of radioactive emissions in terms of their natureCharacteristic Alpha Beta Gamma
Nature Helium nuclei or2 p and 2 n
Electromagneticradiation.Mass 4 1/2000 0Charge +2e -e NeutralSpeed Slow Fast Speed of lightIonizing ability High Medium LowPenetrating power Low Medium HighStopped by A few cm of air ora piece of paperA few mm ofaluminium foilA few cm of leadDeflected byelectric andmagnetic fieldsYes Yes No
IonizingeffectVisibletracks in acloudchamber foralphaparticle, betaparticle andgamma rays
Radioactive emission has an ionizing effect
The 3 types of radiation are highly energetic and usetheir energy to remove electrons from the airmolecules when they pass through air.
The ionization of an atom produces positive ion andnegative ion (electron)
Due to their different charges and masses, they havedifferent ionizing abilities.Alpha Beta GammaDense – strongionization powerstraight tracks -the alphaparticle has alarge mass andmomentum so itis not easilydeflectedVery fast betaparticles - thin,straight tracks.The slower betaparticles - short,thick trackswhich curve inrandomdirection.The gamma raysdo not produceclear orcontinuoustracks due totheir lowionizing power

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