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Published by Hemant Soni

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Published by: Hemant Soni on Dec 10, 2011
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Master of Computer Application (MCA) – Semester 5MC0085 – Advanced Operating SystemsAssignment set-1 
Que.1. Describe the following:
Distributed Computing Systems
Distributed Computing System ModelsAns:-
Distributed Computing Systems
Over the past two decades, advancements in microelectronic technology have resultedin the availability of fast, inexpensive processors, and advancements in communicationtechnology have resulted in the availability of cost-effective and highly efficient computer networks. The advancements in these two technologies favour the use of interconnected,multiple processors in place of a single, high-speed processor.Computer architectures consisting of interconnected, multiple processors are basically of twotypes:In
tightly coupled systems
, there is a single system wide primary memory (address space)that is shared by all the processors (Fig. 1.1). If any processor writes, for example, the value100 to the memory location x, any other processor subsequently reading from location x will getthe value 100. Therefore, in these systems, any communication between the processors usuallytakes place through the shared memory.In
loosely coupled systems
, the processors do not share memory, and each processor hasits own local memory (Fig. 1.2). If a processor writes the value 100 to the memory location x,this write operation will only change the contents of its local memory and will not affect thecontents of the memory of any other processor. Hence, if another processor reads the memorylocation x, it will get whatever value was there before in that location of its own local memory. In
these systems, all physical communication between the processors is done by passingmessages across the network that interconnects the processors.Usually, tightly coupled systems are referred to as parallel processing systems, and looselycoupled systems are referred to as distributed computing systems, or simply distributedsystems. In contrast to the tightly coupled systems, the processors of distributed computingsystems can be located far from each other to cover a wider geographical area. Furthermore, intightly coupled systems, the number of processors that can be usefully deployed is usually smalland limited by the bandwidth of the shared memory. This is not the case with distributedcomputing systems that are more freely expandable and can have an almost unlimited number of processors.
Hence, a
distributed computing system
is basically a collection of processors interconnectedby a communication network in which each processor has its own local memory and other peripherals, and the communication between any two processors of the system takes place bymessage passing over the communication network. For a particular processor, its ownresources are local, whereas the other processors and their resources are remote. Together, aprocessor and its resources are usually referred to as a node or site or machine of thedistributed computing system.
Distributed Computing System Models
Distributed Computing system models can be broadly classified into five categories. They are
Minicomputer model
Workstation model
Workstation – server model
Processor – pool model
Hybrid model
Minicomputer Model :-

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